Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease

widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHDdisputed health risksquestions around the effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseasereducing saturated fat in the diet will reduce cardiovascular diseasesaturated fatSaturated fat and cardiovascular disease controversy
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.wikipedia
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French paradox

Franceparadox
The French paradox is a catchphrase first used in the late 1980s, that summarizes the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), while having a diet relatively rich in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHD.

Lipid hypothesis

a diet which included large amounts of butter, lard, eggs, and beef would lead to coronary heart diseaseeffects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease
In particular, Keys' supplementary hypothesis that reducing saturated fat in the diet will reduce cardiovascular disease has been described by Ravnskov and by Gary Taubes as a "fallacy".

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseasecardiovascular
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.
However, there are some questions around the effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease in the medical literature.

Coconut oil

coconutoilcopra oil
In 2003 a World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) expert consultation report concluded: "intake of saturated fatty acids is directly related to cardiovascular risk. The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10%, of daily energy intake and lessthan 7% for high-risk groups. If populations are consuming less than10%, they should not increase that level of intake. Within these limits,intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be replaced byfats with a lower content of these particular fatty acids. In developingcountries, however, where energy intake for some population groupsmay be inadequate, energy expenditure is high and body fat stores arelow (BMI

Saturated fat

saturated fatty acidsaturatedsaturated fats
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority. In 2003 a World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) expert consultation report concluded: "intake of saturated fatty acids is directly related to cardiovascular risk. The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10%, of daily energy intake and lessthan 7% for high-risk groups. If populations are consuming less than10%, they should not increase that level of intake. Within these limits,intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be replaced byfats with a lower content of these particular fatty acids. In developingcountries, however, where energy intake for some population groupsmay be inadequate, energy expenditure is high and body fat stores arelow (BMI

National Academy of Medicine

Institute of MedicineInstitute of Medicine of the National AcademiesNational Institute of Medicine
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

American Dietetic AssociationADAAND
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

Dietitians of Canada

Dietitians of Canada BC Region
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

British Dietetic Association

Association of UK DietitiansBDA
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

American Heart Association

American Stroke AssociationAHAAmerican Heart Association (AHA)
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

British Heart Foundation

BHFThe British Heart Foundation
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

Heart and Stroke FoundationHeart & Stroke FoundationCanadian Heart & Stroke Foundation
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

World Heart Federation

World Congress of CardiologyWorld Heart DayInternational Society and Federation of Cardiology
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

National Health Service

NHSNational Health Service (NHS)National Health Services
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

European Food Safety Authority

EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority (EFSA)European Food Safety Agency
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Dietitians of Canada, the Association of UK Dietitians, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

Meta-analysis

meta-analysesmeta analysismeta-analytic
Some meta-analyses of clinical trials and observational studies have provided evidence against the recommendation for reduced intake of saturated fat, including one critique by scientists and one by a trade association.

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
Some meta-analyses of clinical trials and observational studies have provided evidence against the recommendation for reduced intake of saturated fat, including one critique by scientists and one by a trade association.

Observational study

observational studiesobservationalobservational data
Some meta-analyses of clinical trials and observational studies have provided evidence against the recommendation for reduced intake of saturated fat, including one critique by scientists and one by a trade association.

Trade association

trade organizationindustry trade grouptrade associations
Some meta-analyses of clinical trials and observational studies have provided evidence against the recommendation for reduced intake of saturated fat, including one critique by scientists and one by a trade association.

Arteriosclerosis

cerebral arteriosclerosishardening of the arteriesarteriosclerotic
The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol is attributed to the Russian pathologist Nikolay Anichkov, prior to World War I.

Cholesterol

total cholesteroldietary cholesterolserum cholesterol
The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol is attributed to the Russian pathologist Nikolay Anichkov, prior to World War I.

Nikolay Anichkov

The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol is attributed to the Russian pathologist Nikolay Anichkov, prior to World War I.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol is attributed to the Russian pathologist Nikolay Anichkov, prior to World War I.