Saturn IB

Three launch configurations of the Apollo Saturn IB rocket: no spacecraft (AS-203), command and service module (most missions); and Lunar Module (Apollo 5)
Diagram of the S-IB first stage of the Saturn IB rocket
Diagram of the S-IVB second stage of the Saturn IB
The instrument unit, which controlled the Saturn IB and Saturn V
Saturn IB mounted on the "milkstool" platform
Various mission configurations for the Saturn IB launch vehicle
All Saturn IB launches from AS-201 through ASTP
SA-209 on display at KSC
Apollo 7 heads into orbit with its crew of three, 1968

American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program.

- Saturn IB

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Saturn I

Rocket designed as the United States' first medium lift launch vehicle for up to 20000 lb low Earth orbit payloads.

The first Saturn I was launched October 27, 1961.
Von Braun, with JFK pointing at Saturn I at Cape Canaveral on 16 November 1963, weeks prior to its launch
A Saturn I first stage lies on its side between tests at MSFC in 1965.
First-stage diagram
Diagram of the S-IV second stage of the Saturn I.
The version 1 (top) and the version 2 (bottom) of the Instrument Unit.
The S-V stage on SA-4.
Saturn I rocket profiles SA-1 through SA-10
The rockets developed at MSFC and ABMA before it are on display at MSFC.
Some of the rockets in the U.S. Space and Rocket Center. From left to right: Saturn I, Jupiter IRBM, Juno II, Mercury-Redstone, Redstone, and Jupiter-C.

Ten Saturn I rockets were flown before it was replaced by the heavy lift derivative Saturn IB, which used a larger, higher total impulse second stage and an improved guidance and control system.

Apollo 1

The first crewed mission of the Apollo program, the American undertaking to land the first man on the Moon.

Official portrait of prime and backup crews for AS-204, as of April 1, 1966. The backup crew (standing) of McDivitt (center), Scott (left) and Schweickart were replaced by Schirra, Eisele and Cunningham in December 1966.
Command module 012, labeled Apollo One, arrives at Kennedy Space Center on August 26, 1966.
The Apollo 1 crew expressed their concerns about their spacecraft's problems by presenting this parody of their crew portrait to ASPO manager Joseph Shea on August 19, 1966.
McDivitt, Scott and Schweickart training for the second Apollo mission on January 26, 1967, in the first Block II command module, wearing early blue versions of the Block II pressure suit.
Chaffee, White, and Grissom training in a simulator of their command module cabin, January 19, 1967
Command module exterior, blackened from the eruption of fire
Charred remains of the Apollo1 cabin interior
Apollo 1 crewmen enter their spacecraft in the altitude chamber at Kennedy Space Center, October 18, 1966.
The BlockI hatch, as used on Apollo1, consisted of two pieces, and required pressure inside the cabin to be no greater than atmospheric in order to open. A third outer layer, the boost protective hatch cover, is not shown.
Deputy Administrator Seamans, Administrator Webb, Manned Space Flight Administrator George E. Mueller, and Apollo Program Director Phillips testify before a Senate hearing on the Apollo accident.
The Space Mirror Memorial at the Kennedy Space Center bears the names of Grissom, White, and Chaffee at the bottom middle.
Apollo1 medallion flown on Apollo9 by Jim McDivitt
Actual Apollo1 hatch on display at the Kennedy Space Center Apollo SaturnV complex

The Saturn IB launch vehicle for Apollo1, SA-204, was used for the first LM test flight, Apollo 5.


The first United States space station, launched by NASA, occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974.

Von Braun's sketch of a Space Station based on conversion of a Saturn V stage, 1964
The floor grating of Skylab under construction
An early "wet workshop" version of Skylab
Launch of the modified Saturn V rocket carrying the Skylab space station
Skylab 3's Saturn IB at night, July 1973
Skylab in orbit in 1973 as flown, docking ports in view
Owen Garriott performing an EVA in 1973
Spider Anita flown aboard Skylab
Chart for the ED 24 experiment
A labeled illustration of a Skylab film vault, from Skylab: A Guidebook (EP-107) by NASA
Skylab could change its attitude without using propellant by changing the spin of large gyroscopes.
Astronaut Jack Lousma in the shower with curtain partially down, July 1973
Conrad in the Skylab shower in 1973
Earth testing showing partially and fully enclosed positions of the shower curtain
A view of the Skylab space station taken with a hand-held 70 mm Hasselblad camera using a 100 mm lens and SO-368 medium speed Ektachrome film
Hurricane Ellen of 1973, as seen from Skylab
The island of Crete as photographed on June 22, 1973, from Skylab
Skylab as Skylab 2 mission departs
Computational cycle of the Skylab computer program
Skylab Rescue vehicle Apollo CSM being removed from its Saturn IB rocket after the last Skylab mission
Concept for proposed Skylab re-boost
Skylab in February 1974, as Skylab 4 departs
Skylab captured this view of the Sun
Solar prominence recorded by Skylab on August 21, 1973
Equirectangular projection relief map of the Skylab re-entry site and final orbits, as predicted by NASA
Fragment of Skylab recovered after its re-entry through Earth's atmosphere, on display at the U.S. Space & Rocket Center
5-person Apollo Command module for the Apollo Rescue mission
SA-209 served on standby for Skylab 4 and ASTP, and has been preserved at the Kennedy Space Center rocket garden.
Overview of most major experiments
The waste disposal equipment in the backup Skylab at the National Air and Space Museum.
A mannequin in the backup Skylab at the Smithsonian Institution National Air and Space Museum.
Skylab commemorative stamp, issue of 1974. The commemorative stamp reflects initial repairs to the station, including the parasol sunshade.
Illustration of Skylab configuration with docked command and service module
Vanguard (T-AGM-19) seen as a NASA Skylab tracking ship. Note the tracking radar and telemetry antennas.
Robbins medallions issued for Skylab missions.
Space Center Houston Skylab 1-G Trainer mannequin.
A mannequin alongside the Skylab 1-G Trainer telescope at Manned Space Center, Houston.
A mannequin in the Skylab 1-G Trainer at Manned Space Center, Houston.
The main module S-IVB is a section of the Saturn V rocket.

Three subsequent missions delivered three-astronaut crews in the Apollo CSM launched by the smaller Saturn IB rocket.

Apollo Lunar Module

The Lunar lander spacecraft that was flown between lunar orbit and the Moon's surface during the United States' Apollo program.

Lunar Module Eagle, the lunar module ascent stage of Apollo 11, in orbit above the Moon. Earth is visible in the distance. Photograph by Michael Collins.
A 1962 model of the first LEM design, docked to the command and service module. The model is held by Joseph Shea, the key engineer behind the adoption of lunar orbit rendezvous mission logistics.
This 1963 model depicts the second LEM design, which gave rise to informal references as "the bug".
Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) during a test flight
The Apollo 6 Lunar Module Test Article (LTA-2R) shortly before being mated with the SLA
The Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle in lunar orbit
Decreased clearance led to buckling of the extended descent engine nozzle on the landing of Apollo 15
Lunar module diagram
Lunar module crew cabin
Astronaut rest (sleeping) accommodation
Lunar module cutaway illustration
Scale model of the Apollo Lunar Module at the Euro Space Center in Belgium
World map showing locations of Apollo Lunar Modules (along with other hardware).
Original proposed "wet workshop" Skylab with the Apollo Telescope Mount
Equipment location plans (1 of 2)
Equipment location plans (2 of 2)
Controls plans
Landing Gear plans

LM-1 was built to make the first uncrewed flight for propulsion systems testing, launched into low Earth orbit atop a Saturn IB.

Saturn V

American super heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by NASA under the Apollo program for human exploration of the Moon.

The launch of Apollo 11 on Saturn V SA-506, July 16, 1969
Saturn V testing vehicle and flight vehicle configurations
All Saturn V launches, 1967–1973
Saturn V diagram
The first stage of Apollo 8 Saturn V being erected in the VAB on February 1, 1968. Engine fairings and fins not yet installed.
An S-II stage hoisted onto the A-2 test stand at the Mississippi Test Facility
The instrument unit for the Apollo 4 Saturn V
Condensation clouds surrounding the Apollo 11 Saturn V as it works its way through the dense lower atmosphere.
Apollo 11 S-IC separation
Apollo 6 interstage falling away. The engine exhaust from the S-II stage glows as it impacts the interstage.
Apollo 17 S-IVB rocket stage, shortly after transposition and docking with the Lunar Module
The Saturn-Shuttle concept
Comparison of Saturn V, Shuttle, Ares I, Ares V, Ares IV, and SLS Block 1
Saturn V Rocket -- Johnson Space Center
Saturn V's F-1 engines—Rocket Park, Houston
National Air and Space Museum
U.S. Space & Rocket Center
Johnson Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
S-IVB stage as Skylab, National Air & Space Museum

Consequently, the S-IVB-500 third stage of the Saturn V was based on the S-IVB-200 second stage of the Saturn IB.

Saturn (rocket family)

Developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.

Three variants of the Saturn family which were developed: Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V
A Saturn I (SA-1) liftoff from LC-34
Line drawings showing the evolution of the Saturn I rocket, from the original designs to the flown versions, and the uprated Saturn IB
1965 graph showing cumulative history and projection of Saturn launches by month (along with Atlas and Titan)
A Saturn IB (AS-202) liftoff from LC-34
von Braun with the F-1 engines of the Saturn V first stage at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center
Rollout of Apollo 11's Saturn V on launch pad

Three versions were built and flown: the medium-lift Saturn I, the heavy-lift Saturn IB, and the super heavy-lift Saturn V.

Apollo program

The third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration , which succeeded in preparing and landing the first humans on the Moon from 1968 to 1972.

Buzz Aldrin (pictured) walked on the Moon with Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, July 20–21, 1969.
Earthrise, the iconic 1968 image from Apollo 8 taken by astronaut William Anders
President Kennedy delivers his proposal to put a man on the Moon before a joint session of Congress, May 25, 1961
George Mueller, Wernher von Braun, and Eberhard Rees watch the AS-101 launch from the firing room
John Houbolt explaining the LOR concept
Early Apollo configuration for Direct Ascent and Earth Orbit Rendezvous, 1961
An Apollo boilerplate command module is on exhibit in the Meteor Crater Visitor Center in Winslow, Arizona.
Apollo 15 CSM in lunar orbit
Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle on the Moon, photographed by Neil Armstrong
Four Apollo rocket assemblies, drawn to scale: Little Joe II, Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V
A Saturn IB rocket launches Apollo 7, 1968
A Saturn V rocket launches Apollo 11, 1969
Apollo 1 crew: Ed White, command pilot Gus Grissom, and Roger Chaffee
Apollo 11 crew, from left: Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin
Charred Apollo 1 cabin interior
Block II spacesuit in January 1968, before (left) and after changes recommended after the Apollo1 fire
Neil Armstrong descends the LM's ladder in preparation for the first steps on the lunar surface, as televised live on July 20, 1969
Apollo landings on the Moon, 1969–1972
Lunar Roving Vehicle used on Apollos 15–17
Plaque left on the Moon by Apollo 17
Tranquility Base, imaged in March 2012 by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
The Blue Marble photograph taken on December7, 1972, during Apollo 17. "We went to explore the Moon, and in fact discovered the Earth." —Eugene Cernan
Launch The three Saturn{{nbsp}}V stages burn for about 11 minutes to achieve a {{convert|100|nmi|km|adj=on}} circular parking orbit. The third stage burns a small portion of its fuel to achieve orbit.
Translunar injection After one to two orbits to verify readiness of spacecraft systems, the S-IVB third stage reignites for about six minutes to send the spacecraft to the Moon.
Transposition and docking The Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) panels separate to free the CSM and expose the LM. The command module pilot (CMP) moves the CSM out a safe distance, and turns 180°.
Extraction The CMP docks the CSM with the LM, and pulls the complete spacecraft away from the S-IVB. The lunar voyage takes between two and three days. Midcourse corrections are made as necessary using the SM engine.
Lunar orbit insertion The spacecraft passes about {{convert|60|nmi|km}} behind the Moon, and the SM engine is fired to slow the spacecraft and put it into a {{convert|60|by|170|nmi|km|adj=on}} orbit, which is soon circularized at 60 nautical miles by a second burn.
After a rest period, the commander (CDR) and lunar module pilot (LMP) move to the LM, power up its systems, and deploy the landing gear. The CSM and LM separate; the CMP visually inspects the LM, then the LM crew move a safe distance away and fire the descent engine for Descent orbit insertion, which takes it to a perilune of about {{convert|50000|ft|km}}.
Powered descent At perilune, the descent engine fires again to start the descent. The CDR takes control after pitchover for a vertical landing.
The CDR and LMP perform one or more EVAs exploring the lunar surface and collecting samples, alternating with rest periods.
The ascent stage lifts off, using the descent stage as a launching pad.
The LM rendezvouses and docks with the CSM.
The CDR and LMP transfer back to the CM with their material samples, then the LM ascent stage is jettisoned, to eventually fall out of orbit and crash on the surface.
Trans-Earth injection The SM engine fires to send the CSM back to Earth.
The SM is jettisoned just before reentry, and the CM turns 180° to face its blunt end forward for reentry.
Atmospheric drag slows the CM. Aerodynamic heating surrounds it with an envelope of ionized air which causes a communications blackout for several minutes.
Parachutes are deployed, slowing the CM for a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. The astronauts are recovered and brought to an aircraft carrier.
Lunar flight profile (distances not to scale).

The two newest launch complexes were already being built for the Saturn I and IB rockets at the northernmost end: LC-34 and LC-37.


The second stage of the Saturn I rocket used by NASA for early flights in the Apollo program.

Schematics of the S-IV

The S-IV was manufactured by the Douglas Aircraft Company and later modified by them to the S-IVB, a similar but distinct stage used on the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets.


S-IVB-206 which was used for the Skylab 2 flight
Cutaway drawing of the Saturn V S-IVB
Apollo 7 S-IVB in orbit over Cape Canaveral.
Distant view of Apollo 7 S-IVB stage
Apollo 8 S-IVB, shortly after separation

The S-IVB (pronounced "S-four-B") was the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB launch vehicles.


The first crewed international space mission, carried out jointly by the United States and the Soviet Union in July 1975.

Left to right: Slayton, Brand, Stafford
American crew insignia for the Apollo/Soyuz mission
Leonov (left) and Kubasov
A Saturn IB launch vehicle lifts the American ASTP crew into orbit.
Soyuz as seen from Apollo CM
Apollo–Soyuz painting
Apollo–Soyuz display at the RKK Energia Museum in Korolyov, Moscow Oblast, Russia
The Apollo–Soyuz display in the National Air and Space Museum
Soyuz–Apollo, Issue of 1975, USSR
Apollo–Soyuz, Issue of 1975, USA
Apollo–Soyuz medallion
Soyuz 19 as seen from the Apollo
Mission control center in Houston during ASTP
The historic handshake between Stafford and Leonov
U.S. President Gerald Ford speaks to the Soviet and American crews on 18 July 1975.
Deke Slayton (right) with Leonov in the Soyuz spacecraft
The astronauts and cosmonauts assembled this commemorative plaque in orbit as a symbol of the international cooperation.

The Saturn IB launch vehicle and CSM were surplus material.