Saudi Arabia

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

- Saudi Arabia

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Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.


Island country in Western Asia.

A 1745 Bellin map of the historical region of Bahrain
Map showing the locations of the ancient burial mounds. There are an estimated 350,000 burial mounds.
The Persian Empire in Sassanid era on the eve of the Arab conquest, c. 600 AD.
Facsimile of a letter sent by Muhammad to Munzir ibn-Sawa al-Tamimi, governor of Bahrain, in AD 628
The Portuguese Fort of Barém, built by the Portuguese Empire while it ruled Bahrain from 1521 to 1602.
Arad Fort in Arad; constructed before the Portuguese assumed control.
Purple – Portuguese in the Persian Gulf in the 16th and 17th centuries. Main cities, ports and routes.
This photograph shows the coronation of Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as the Hakim of Bahrain in February 1933.
Map of Bahrain in 1825.
Manama harbor, c. 1870
A photograph of the First Oil Well in Bahrain, with oil first being extracted in 1931
Overview of Manama, 1953.
Manama souq in 1965
Satellite view of Bahrain and eastern Saudi Arabia in 2016.
Bahrain map 2014
Greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) are native to Bahrain.
Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, the King of Bahrain
of the Royal Bahraini Navy taking part in a multilateral sea exercise
King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa meets U.S. President Donald Trump, May 2017
Bahraini protests against the ruling Al Khalifa family in 2011
Several people held a sit-in in solidarity with human rights activist Nabeel Rajab
GDP per capita development in Bahrain
A proportional representation of Bahrain exports, 2019
Manama skyline as viewed from Juffair
The cities of Muharraq (foreground) and Manama (background)
The Tree of Life, a 9.75 meters high Prosopis cineraria tree that is over 400 years old
The King Fahd Causeway as seen from space
Bahrainis observing public prayers in Manama
Gudaibiya mosque, in Manama
Female students at the University of Bahrain dressed in traditional garb
Ambulance in International Hospital of Bahrain
The Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa house is an example of traditional architecture in Bahrain.
An artisan making pottery using the traditional mud and water mixture on a revolving wheel.
The Bahrain national football team playing Australia on June 10, 2009, in a World Cup qualifier
The podium ceremony at the 2007 Bahrain Grand Prix

Bahrain is situated between Qatar and the northeastern coast of Saudi Arabia, to which it is connected by the King Fahd Causeway.


Riyadh at the sunset
1922 map of Riyadh
Riyadh's skyline in 2018
Imam Turki bin Abdullah Mosque
A courtyard in the Murabba Palace
The Masmak Fortress in 2014
Anthropomorphic stela from the 4th millennium BC at the National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh
Saudi Arabian Airlines ERJ-170 at Riyadh King Khalid International Airport
Riyadh aerial highway
Lake at the 120 km long Wadi Hanifa valley that cuts through Riyadh
The emerging King Abdullah Financial District in 2012
The An Nafud desert in the outskirts of Riyadh with the Jabal Tuwaiq in the background

Riyadh (الرياض, lit.: 'The Gardens' Najdi pronunciation: ), formerly known as Hajr, is the capital of Saudi Arabia and one of the largest cities on the Arabian Peninsula.

Gulf of Aqaba

Large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian Peninsula.

The Sinai Peninsula with the Gulf of Aqaba to the east and the Gulf of Suez to the west
The Sinai Peninsula separating the Gulf of Suez to the west and the Gulf of Aqaba, to the east.
View of the Gulf of Aqaba near Nuweiba, Egypt.
The city of Aqaba is the largest on the gulf
"Isle of Graia Gulf of Akabah Arabia Petraea", 1839 lithograph of a trade caravan in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia, by Louis Haghe from an original by David Roberts.
Coral World Underwater Observatory at Eilat
Taba beach
Red Sea coral and marine fish
A resort near Eilat's Coral Beach

Its coastline is divided among four countries: Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia.


8th century rock inscription discovered in Madinah, refers to the city as 'Taybah'
17th century CE bronze token depicting prophet's Mosque, the inscription below reads 'Madinah Shareef' (Noble City)
Three of the Seven Mosques at the site of the Battle of the Trench were combined into the modern Masjid al-Fath, here pictured with Jabal Sal'aa in the background and a shop selling local goods in the foreground.
The Green Dome was built in 1297 CE over Muhammad's rawdhah (residence) and site of burial.
The Gold dinar of Umar II, also known as 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz or the Fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Tomb of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, who started a tradition of greatly funding Medina and protecting pilgrims visiting the holy city.
The Medina sanctuary and Green Dome, photographed in 1880 by Muhammad Sadiq. The dome was built during the Mamluk period, but given its signature color by the Ottomans nearly 600 years later.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, who kept Medina in a peaceful and prosperous state for around 30 years after taking it from the First Saudi State.
The Hejaz railway track near Wadi Rum in Jordan. Jordan uses the railway today for transporting phosphate.
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.
The train which Fakhri Pasha used to transport the Sacred Relics from Medina to Istanbul.
Mount Uhud at night. The mountain is currently the highest peak in Medina and stands at 1,077 m (3,533 ft) of elevation.
Panoramic view of the Prophet's Mosque, from the east at sunset.
Medina Sex Pyramid Chart as of 2018
Madinah Arts Center
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.
Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Airport
A government-run bus in Medina at Salam Rd. Station
Haramain high-speed railway station at Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة, ) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (المدينة, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia.

Western Asia

Westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions.

A Lebanese Cedar Forest in winter
Köppen climate classification map of West Asia
Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca.
Cathedral of Saint Elijah, Aleppo.
Jews Praying at the Western Wall.
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin
Yazidi pilgrims celebrating the Yazidi new year festival at the ancient holy temple of Lalish, Iraq

The most populous countries in Western Asia are Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.


Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia.


Above: Islam's holiest site, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah (middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims.

Below: Map of the Hejaz showing the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yanbu and Tabuk. The Saudi Arabian region is outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom is in green.
Above: Islam's holiest site, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah (middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims.

Below: Map of the Hejaz showing the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yanbu and Tabuk. The Saudi Arabian region is outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom is in green.
The city of Al-'Ula in 2012. The city's archaeological district is in the foreground, with the Hijaz Mountains in the background.
The rock-carved Qaṣr Al-Farīd at Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) or Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ ("Cities of Saleh")
Muhammad's Mosque in Medina, his place-of-residence after the Hijrah (Migration) from Mecca, 2010
Harrat Khaybar, as seen from the International Space Station
Workers laying tracks for the Hejaz Railway near Tabuk, 1906
Flag of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)
Flag of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)
Flag of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
Flag of the Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)
Flag of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171–1254)
Flag of the Mamluk Sultanate (1254–1517)
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1517–1916)
Sheikdom of Upper Asir (1916-1920)
Provisional flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz from 1916 to 1917
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz (1917–1920)
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and the Sharifian Caliphate (1920 to 1926)
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd (1926 to 1932)
Flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1973–present)
thumb|Mountains near Ta'if, 2012
The camp of Mina on the outskirts of Mecca, where Muslim pilgrims gather for the Ḥajj (Greater Pilgrimage). Masjid Al-Khayf is visible to the right.
Pilgrims gathering at the plain of Mount Arafat
Mount Uhud in the area of Madinah
The old city of Jeddah
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) campus at night
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Al-Bahah City, located {{convert|2,155|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province

The Hejaz (, also ; ٱلْحِجَاز, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia.


Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's conquest of Arabia
Najd superimposed over the modern political divisions of Saudi Arabia
Lake at the 120 km long Wadi Hanifa valley that cuts through Riyadh
The area of 'Uqdah on the outskirts of Ha'il
The An Nafud desert in the outskirts of Riyadh with the Jabal Tuwaiq in the background
Skyline of Riyadh in the late 2010s
Najd is home to numerous date farms and large agricultural areas.

Najd (نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia, accounting for about a third of the country's modern population and, since the Emirate of Diriyah, acting as the base for all unification campaigns by the House of Saud to bring Arabia under a single polity and under the Salafi jurisprudence.

Persian Gulf

Mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

Persian Gulf from space
Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from [[:File:MiddleEast.png|larger map of the Middle East]].
A historical map of the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum with the word Persian removed
Picture depicting extent of early civilizations around the Persian Gulf, including Lackhmids and Sassanids.
Picture depicting the Achaemenid Persian empire in relation to the Persian Gulf.
A painting depicting the British Expeditionary Force off the coast of Ras Al Khaimah in 1809.
The Portuguese Castle on Hormuz Island (Gaspar Correia. "Lendas da Índia", c. 1556)
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort in October 1987
Oil and gas pipelines and fields
Khasab, Musandam, Oman
Dubai, UAE
Abu Dhabi, UAE
Doha, Qatar
Manama, Bahrain
Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Al-Faw, Iraq
Bandar Abbas, Iran
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow water
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off the southern shore of Iran, around Hengam Island
Spinner dolphins leaping in the Persian gulf
Critically endangered Arabian humpback whales (being the most isolated, and the only resident population in the world) off Dhofar, Oman
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island

Its length is 989 km, with Iran covering most of the northern coast and Saudi Arabia most of the southern coast.