A report on Saudi Arabia

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

- Saudi Arabia

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Middle East

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Geopolitical term that commonly refers to the region spanning Arabia (including the Arabian Peninsula and Bahrain), Asia Minor (Asian part of Turkey except Hatay Province), East Thrace (European part of Turkey), Egypt, Iran, the Levant (including Ash-Shām and Cyprus), Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), and the Socotra Archipelago (a part of Yemen).

Geopolitical term that commonly refers to the region spanning Arabia (including the Arabian Peninsula and Bahrain), Asia Minor (Asian part of Turkey except Hatay Province), East Thrace (European part of Turkey), Egypt, Iran, the Levant (including Ash-Shām and Cyprus), Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), and the Socotra Archipelago (a part of Yemen).

Map of the Middle East between Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and Southern Asia.
Middle East map of Köppen climate classification.
Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
The Kaaba, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East. Here, Muslim men are prostrating during prayer in a mosque.
Oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates
Amman – Jordan
Ankara – Turkey
Baghdad, Iraq
Beirut – Lebanon
Cairo – Egypt
Damascus – Syria
Doha – Qatar
Dubai – United Arab Emirates
Istanbul – Turkey
Jerusalem – Israel
Kuwait City – Kuwait
Manama – Bahrain
Mecca – Saudi Arabia
Muscat – Oman
Nicosia – Cyprus
Ramallah – Palestine
Sana'a – Yemen
Tehran – Iran
Tel Aviv – Israel
Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia. The site of the oldest known man-made religious structure.
Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish (in Arabic script), Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian, and French.

The most populous countries in the region are Egypt, Iran, and Turkey, while Saudi Arabia is the largest Middle Eastern country by area.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

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Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, activist, religious leader, reformer, and theologian from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.

Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, activist, religious leader, reformer, and theologian from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy
An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula (circa 1740s)
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
A 20th century illustration of the Pact of Dir'iyah
Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state (1727–1818)
Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism), the most popular treatise of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, the national mosque of Qatar
Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh al-Najd by chronicler Uthman ibn 'Abdullah Ibn Bishr
A portrait of the entrance to the city of Diriyah

Despite his teachings being rejected and opposed by many of the most notable Sunni Muslim scholars of the period, including his own father and brother, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab charted a religio-political pact with Muhammad bin Saud to help him to establish the Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state, and began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

Salafi movement

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Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

In legal matters, Salafi Muslims are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad), reject strict adherence (taqlid) to the four Sunni schools of law (madhahib) and those who remain faithful to them, namely, the Saudi scholars, who do not follow any specific madhhab.

Arab League

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Regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Western Asia.

Regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Western Asia.

Arab League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen), Syrian Republic, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Lebanese Republic and Palestine
Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
 1940s 1950s 1960s  1970s
Headquarters of the Arab League, Cairo.
Administrative divisions in the Arab League.
2013 Arab League Summit Logo
OAPEC Members
Recognition of both Israel and Palestinian State
Recognition of Palestinian State only

The Arab League was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 initially with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

Gulf Cooperation Council

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Rail transport map of Saudi Arabia. The GCC Railway, a proposed railway system to connect all six GCC member states, can be seen in yellow.
Euler Diagram for the Arab League, which contains members of the Gulf Cooperation Council

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), also known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC; مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional, intergovernmental, political, and economic union comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

OPEC

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Intergovernmental organization of countries.

Intergovernmental organization of countries.

OPEC Conference delegates at Swissotel, Quito, Ecuador, December 2010.
OPEC headquarters in Vienna
(2009 building).
An undersupplied US gasoline station, closed during the oil embargo in 1973.
A woman uses wood in a fireplace for heat. A newspaper headline in the foreground shows a story regarding a lack of heating oil in the community.
Fluctuations of OPEC net oil export revenues since 1972
One of the hundreds of Kuwaiti oil fires set by retreating Iraqi troops in 1991
Fluctuations of Brent crude oil price, 1988–2015
OPEC members' net oil export revenues, 2000–2020
Countries by net oil exports (2008).
Countries by oil production (2013)
Gusher well in Saudi Arabia: conventional source of OPEC production
Shale "fracking" in the US: important new challenge to OPEC market share
Logo for JODI, in which OPEC is a founding member.
Sulfur content and API gravity of different types of crude oil.

Founded on 14 September 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), it has, since 1965, been headquartered in Vienna, Austria, although Austria is not an OPEC member state.

Arabic

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Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Safaitic inscription
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

Gulf Arabic, spoken by around four million people, predominantly in Kuwait, Bahrain, some parts of Oman, eastern Saudi Arabia coastal areas and some parts of UAE and Qatar. Also spoken in Iran's Bushehr and Hormozgan provinces. Although Gulf Arabic is spoken in Qatar, most Qatari citizens speak Najdi Arabic (Bedawi).

Muslim brotherhood logo with the Arabic word for "prepare" present under two crossed swords

Muslim Brotherhood

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Transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

Transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

Muslim brotherhood logo with the Arabic word for "prepare" present under two crossed swords
Muslim Brotherhood fighters in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
Then-U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meeting with then-Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, May 2013
A group of pro-Brotherhood protesters holding the Rabia sign and making the associated gesture during a pro-Brotherhood protest held in October 2013.
Mohammed Badie, the current leader
Erdoğan performing the Rabaa gesture (which is used by Muslim Brotherhood supporters in Egypt protesting against the post-Brotherhood authorities)
Countries that ban Muslim Brotherhood,

Persian Gulf monarchies of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates followed suit, driven by the perception that the Brotherhood is a threat to their authoritarian rule.

Jeddah

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Jeddah in 1938
Portuguese attack in 1517 by Gaspar Correia (c. 1496–1563) - Originally from Lendas da India by Gaspar Correia.
Mohammed Abu Zenada, one of the Chiefs of Jeddah and the advisor to the Sharif during the surrender to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in 1925
King Abdulaziz sitting with Abdullah Ali Reda on the day he entered Jeddah in 1925
Map of Jeddah from OpenStreetMap
Mall of Arabia is the largest shopping mall in Jeddah.
King Abdullah Street.
Galleria, a Hotel at Tahliyah Street.
A view of the Madinah Road in 2007.
A woman from Jeddah in traditional clothing, 1873.
Hejazi Saleeg
The bicycle roundabout is one of the most iconic open-air art installations in Jeddah.
Skyline of Al-Balad (Jeddah Downtown)
The architecture of buildings in Jeddahs' historic Al-Balad area
The historic centre
Saloom's house in historical Jeddah
Beit Nasseef
Beit Bajanaid
King Fahd's Fountain in Jeddah
Al-Rahmah Mosque
The IDB Jeddah tower can be seen in the background of this mosque.
The world's tallest flagpole
Bab Makkah
Quran Gate, Entrance to Makkah, Makkah Gate
Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
Pakistan International School Jeddah (PISJ)
King Abdullah International Stadium
King Abdulaziz International Airport
Jeddah Seaport
The high-speed locomotive that operates the Haramain train line between Makkah, Madinah, and Jeddah. It is manufactured by Spanish trainset manufacturer Talgo.
A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2009 floods.
A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2011 floods.

Jeddah, also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda (جِدَّة, ), is a city in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia and the country's commercial center.

Mohammed bin Salman in 2019

Mohammed bin Salman

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Saudi Arabian politician who is the crown prince, deputy prime minister, and minister of defense of Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabian politician who is the crown prince, deputy prime minister, and minister of defense of Saudi Arabia.

Mohammed bin Salman in 2019
Mohammed bin Salman in 2019
Mohammed bin Salman with US Secretary of State John Kerry and Adel al-Jubeir, 13 June 2016
President Donald Trump speaks with bin Salman, Washington, D.C., 14 March 2017
Bin Salman with the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, at the 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit
Bin Salman with President Trump's son-in-law Jared Kushner and daughter Ivanka Trump, U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, and White House Chief of Staff Reince Priebus, Riyadh, May 2017
Bin Salman at the 2019 G20 Osaka summit
Portraits of King Salman and Prince Mohammed at the Jenadriyah festival
Palestinians protest in the Gaza Strip, 9 December 2017
Protest in London against bin Salman's state visit to the UK, 7 March 2018
U.S. Defense Secretary James Mattis with bin Salman, 22 March 2018
President Donald Trump with bin Salman in June 2019
Bin Salman with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, on 16 October 2018
Ahmad Asiri (right) and bin Salman (left) in 2016
Bin Salman with Nicolas Sarkozy, former President of France, and Juan Carlos Varela, former President of Panama, at the FIFA World Cup in Russia, 14 June 2018
Bin Salman with Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro at the 2019 G20 Osaka summit
Bin Salman with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow, Russia on 14 June 2018
Bin Salman with U.S. President Joe Biden at the GCC+3 summit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 16 July 2022

Saudi Arabia had issued an extradition request and Interpol notices to bring back Saad Al Jabri, who was the US anti-terrorism contact in the Middle East and was staying in Canada since 2018.