Saudi Arabia

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

- Saudi Arabia

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Above: Islam's holiest site, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah (middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims.


Below: Map of the Hejaz showing the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yanbu and Tabuk. The Saudi Arabian region is outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom is in green.

Hejaz

Above: Islam's holiest site, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah (middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims.


Below: Map of the Hejaz showing the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yanbu and Tabuk. The Saudi Arabian region is outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom is in green.
Above: Islam's holiest site, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah (middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims.


Below: Map of the Hejaz showing the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yanbu and Tabuk. The Saudi Arabian region is outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom is in green.
The city of Al-'Ula in 2012. The city's archaeological district is in the foreground, with the Hijaz Mountains in the background.
The rock-carved Qaṣr Al-Farīd at Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) or Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ ("Cities of Saleh")
Muhammad's Mosque in Medina, his place-of-residence after the Hijrah (Migration) from Mecca, 2010
Harrat Khaybar, as seen from the International Space Station
Workers laying tracks for the Hejaz Railway near Tabuk, 1906
Flag of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)
Flag of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)
Flag of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
Flag of the Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)
Flag of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171–1254)
Flag of the Mamluk Sultanate (1254–1517)
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1517–1916)
Sheikdom of Upper Asir (1916-1920)
Provisional flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz from 1916 to 1917
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz (1917–1920)
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and the Sharifian Caliphate (1920 to 1926)
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd (1926 to 1932)
Flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1973–present)
thumb|Mountains near Ta'if, 2012
The camp of Mina on the outskirts of Mecca, where Muslim pilgrims gather for the Ḥajj (Greater Pilgrimage). Masjid Al-Khayf is visible to the right.
Pilgrims gathering at the plain of Mount Arafat
Mount Uhud in the area of Madinah
The old city of Jeddah
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) campus at night
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Al-Bahah City, located {{convert|2,155|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province

The Hejaz (, also ; ٱلْحِجَاز, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia.

Gulf Cooperation Council

Rail transport map of Saudi Arabia. The GCC Railway, a proposed railway system to connect all six GCC member states, can be seen in yellow.
Euler Diagram for the Arab League, which contains members of the Gulf Cooperation Council

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), also known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC; مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional, intergovernmental, political, and economic union that consists of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Western Asia

Westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions.

Westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions.

A Lebanese Cedar Forest in winter
Köppen climate classification map of West Asia
Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca.
Cathedral of Saint Elijah, Aleppo.
Jews Praying at the Western Wall.
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin
Yazidi pilgrims celebrating the Yazidi new year festival at the ancient holy temple of Lalish, Iraq

The most populous countries in Western Asia are Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

Jeddah

Jeddah in 1938
Portuguese attack in 1517 by Gaspar Correia (c. 1496–1563) - Originally from Lendas da India by Gaspar Correia.
Mohammed Abu Zenada, one of the Chiefs of Jeddah and the advisor to the Sharif during the surrender to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in 1925
King Abdulaziz sitting with Abdullah Ali Reda on the day he entered Jeddah in 1925
Map of Jeddah from OpenStreetMap
Mall of Arabia is the largest shopping mall in Jeddah.
King Abdullah Street.
Galleria, a Hotel at Tahliyah Street.
A view of the Madinah Road in 2007.
A woman from Jeddah in traditional clothing, 1873.
Hejazi Saleeg
The bicycle roundabout is one of the most iconic open-air art installations in Jeddah.
Skyline of Al-Balad (Jeddah Downtown)
The architecture of buildings in Jeddahs' historic Al-Balad area
The historic centre
Saloom's house in historical Jeddah
Beit Nasseef
Beit Bajanaid
King Fahd's Fountain in Jeddah
Al-Rahmah Mosque
The IDB Jeddah tower can be seen in the background of this mosque.
The world's tallest flagpole
Bab Makkah
Quran Gate, Entrance to Makkah, Makkah Gate
Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
Pakistan International School Jeddah (PISJ)
King Abdullah International Stadium
King Abdulaziz International Airport
Jeddah Seaport
The high-speed locomotive that operates the Haramain train line between Makkah, Madinah, and Jeddah. It is manufactured by Spanish trainset manufacturer Talgo.
A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2009 floods.
A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2011 floods.

Jeddah, also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda (جِدَّة, ), is a city in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia and the country's commercial center.

Assad in 2018

Bashar al-Assad

Syrian politician who is the 19th president of Syria, since 17 July 2000.

Syrian politician who is the 19th president of Syria, since 17 July 2000.

Assad in 2018
Assad in 2022
Hafez al-Assad with his family in the early 1970s. From left to right: Bashar, Maher, Anisa, Majd, Bushra and Bassel
The al-Assad family, c. 1993. At the front are Hafez and his wife, Anisa. At the back row, from left to right: Maher, Bashar, Bassel, Majd and Bushra
Bassel al-Assad, Bashar's older brother, died in 1994, paving the way for Bashar's future presidency.
Bashar al-Assad and his wife Asma with then-Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and the President Pratibha Patil in New Delhi, 2008
Assad in January 2001
Protests in Douma, 8 April 2011
Pro-Assad demonstration in Latakia, 20 June 2011
Destroyed vehicle on a devastated Aleppo street, 6 October 2012
A poster of Bashar al-Assad at a checkpoint on the outskirts of Damascus
Assad greeting Russian President Vladimir Putin, 21 October 2015
Bashar al-Assad meets with Iran's supreme leader Ali Khamenei, 25 February 2019
Bashar al-Assad meets with Iran's representative on Syrian affairs, Ali Akbar Velayati, 6 May 2016
Billboard with a portrait of Bashar al-Assad and the text 'Syria is protected by God' on the old city wall of Damascus in 2006
Assad with Indian President Pratibha Patil in Damascus in 2010
Assad with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2010
Golan Heights has been occupied and administered as part of Israel since 1967.
Assad greeting Iran's supreme leader Ali Khamenei
Assad meets with U.S. Senator Ted Kaufman in 2009
Military situation in the Syrian civil war in July 2015
Military situation in January 2019
Ethno-religious makeup of Syria
Bashar al-Assad wearing the "Grand Collar" of the National Order of the Southern Cross, accompanied by Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Brasília, 30 June 2010
Bashar al-Assad with his wife Asma in Moscow, 27 January 2005
Bashar al-Assad and his wife Asma al-Assad

In October 2014, U.S. Vice President Joe Biden stated that Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates had "poured hundreds of millions of dollars and tens of thousands of tons of weapons into anyone who would fight against Al-Assad, except that the people who were being supplied were al-Nusra, and al Qaeda, and the extremist elements of jihadis coming from other parts of the world."

United States

Country primarily located in North America.

Country primarily located in North America.

Cliff Palace in Colorado, built by the Native American Puebloans between AD 1190 and 1260
The original Thirteen Colonies (shown in red) in 1775
Declaration of Independence, a painting by John Trumbull, depicts the Committee of Five presenting the draft of the Declaration to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, July 4, 1776.
Territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought between Union and Confederate forces on July 1–3, 1863 around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was the deadliest of all Civil War battles. With more than 51,000 casualties, it marked a turning point in the Union's ultimate victory in the war.
U.S. Marines raising the American flag on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in one of the most iconic images of World War II
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, August 1963.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev at the Geneva Summit, February 1985
The World Trade Center in New York City burning from the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda in 2001
Topographic map of the United States.
A map showing climate regions in the United States
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
Map of the United States showing the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the five major U.S. territories
The headquarters of the United Nations, of which the U.S. is a founding member, has been situated in Midtown Manhattan since 1952.
U.S. Government spending and revenue from 1792 to 2018
The Pentagon, located in Arlington, Virginia across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., is home to the U.S. Department of Defense.
Total incarceration in the United States by year (1920–2014)
A proportional representation of United States exports, 2019
Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, July 1969
Wealth inequality in the U.S. increased between 1989 and 2013.
The Interstate Highway System in the contiguous United States, which extends 46876 mi
Most prominent religion by state according to a 2014 Pew Research study
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds
The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson, is one of the many public colleges and universities in the United States. Some 80% of U.S. college students attend these types of institutions.
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, has become an iconic symbol of the American Dream.
Mark Twain, American author and humorist
Roast turkey, a traditional menu item of an American Thanksgiving dinner, November 2021
Grammy Museum at L.A. Live in Los Angeles, April 2009
The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California, September 2015
The headquarters of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) at Rockefeller Plaza in New York City
"the united states of America", April 6, 1776
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression.
Rock formations in the Grand Canyon, northern Arizona
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
The amount of US debt, measured as a percentage of GDP from 1790 to 2018
The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73)
The New York City Police Department is the nation's largest municipal law enforcement agency.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street in New York City
Percentage of respondents in the United States saying that religion is "very important" or "somewhat important" in their lives (2014)
The Texas Medical Center in downtown Houston is the largest medical complex in the world.

At 4.7% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia.

Red Sea coast at Makadi Bay

Red Sea

Seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

Seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

Red Sea coast at Makadi Bay
Tihama on the Red Sea near Khaukha, Yemen
Ancient Egyptian expedition to the Land of Punt on the Red Sea coast during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut
Settlements and commercial centers in the vicinity of the Red Sea involved in the spice trade, as described in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Annotated view of the Nile and Red Sea, with a dust storm
Dust storm over the Red Sea
Red Sea coast in Taba, Egypt
Hawksbill sea turtle in the Elphinstone Reef
Nudibranch egg ribbon at Shaab Mahmoud
Red Sea coral and marine fish
Hotels in Eilat, Israel
A four color map of the Red Sea and its bordering countries

Saudi Arabia

(Data from A Persistent Threat, The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists, Seth G. Jones, 2014, Figure 3.1)

Salafi jihadism

Transnational, hybrid religious-political ideology based on the Sunni sect of Islamism, seeking to establish a global caliphate, characterized by the advocacy for "physical" jihadist and Salafist concepts of returning to what adherents believe to be the "true Islam".

Transnational, hybrid religious-political ideology based on the Sunni sect of Islamism, seeking to establish a global caliphate, characterized by the advocacy for "physical" jihadist and Salafist concepts of returning to what adherents believe to be the "true Islam".

(Data from A Persistent Threat, The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists, Seth G. Jones, 2014, Figure 3.1)
Flag of al-Qaeda
Flag of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

These fighters were usually not Iraqis, but volunteers who had come to Iraq from other countries, mainly Saudi Arabia.

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

Iran–Iraq War

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Iraq's main financial backers were the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, most notably Saudi Arabia ($30.9 billion), Kuwait ($8.2 billion), and the United Arab Emirates ($8 billion).

Bin Laden, c. undefined 1997–98

Osama bin Laden

Founder of the Pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda.

Founder of the Pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda.

Bin Laden, c. undefined 1997–98
Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir interviewing Osama bin Laden in 1997. The AKS-74U in the background is a symbol of the mujadin's victory over the Soviets, since these weapons were captured from Spetsnaz forces.
United Airlines Flight 175 crashes into the South Tower
2001 video of bin Laden
Delta Force GIs disguised as Afghan civilians, while they searched for bin Laden in November 2001
Bin Laden was in Afghanistan's White Mountains before the US attack in the Battle of Tora Bora
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Map showing the U.S. operation from its bases in Afghanistan to Pakistan that killed bin Laden, and the subsequent burial of his body at sea
Website of the Federal Bureau of Investigation listing bin Laden as deceased on the Most Wanted List on 3 May 2011

From 1979 to 1992, the United States (as part of CIA activities in Afghanistan, specifically Operation Cyclone), Saudi Arabia, and China provided between $6–12 billion worth of financial aid and weapons to tens of thousands of mujahideen through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).