A report on Saudi Arabia

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

- Saudi Arabia

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Flag of the Ikhwan

Ikhwan

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Flag of the Ikhwan
Hand-painted image in January 1930 of the Sheikh of the Mutair tribe and one of the most prominent leaders of the Brotherhood Faisal bin Sultan Al-Duwish
One of the leaders of Ikhwan Sultan bin Bajad Al-Otaibi
Soldiers from akhwan min taʽa Allah Army on Camels carrying the Flags of the Third Saudi State, and Flag of Saud dynasty, Flag and the akhwan Army.
Ikhwan men taa Allah flag

The Ikhwan (الإخوان, The Brethren), commonly known as Ikhwan men taa Allah (إخوان من أطاع الله), was a Wahhabi religious militia made up of traditionally nomadic tribesmen which formed a significant military force of the ruler Ibn Saud and played an important role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Bani Khalid

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Arab tribal confederation.

Arab tribal confederation.

Most of the tribe's members presently reside in eastern and central Saudi Arabia, while others live in Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Palestine, Syria and the United Arab Emirates.

Location of foreign lands for the Mesopotamians, including Elam, Magan, Dilmun, Marhashi and Meluhha.

Dilmun

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Ancient East Semitic-speaking civilization in Eastern Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.

Ancient East Semitic-speaking civilization in Eastern Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.

Location of foreign lands for the Mesopotamians, including Elam, Magan, Dilmun, Marhashi and Meluhha.
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Receipt for garments sent by boat to Dilmun in the 1st year of Ibbi-Sin's rule, circa 2028 BCE. British Museum BM 130462.
Bull's head, made of copper in the early period of Dilmun (ca. 2000 BC), discovered by Danish archeologists under Barbar Temple, Bahrain.
Correspondence between Ilī-ippašra, the governor of Dilmun, and Enlil-kidinni, the governor of Nippur, ca. 1350 BC
Dilmun stamp seal with hunters and goats, rectangular pen, ca early 2nd millennium BC
Ruins of a settlement, believed to be from the Dilmun civilization, in Sar, Bahrain
Location of burial mounds in Bahrain

Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Kuwait, and eastern Saudi Arabia.

Khashoggi in March 2018

Jamal Khashoggi

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Saudi Arabian journalist, dissident, author, columnist for Middle East Eye and The Washington Post, and a general manager and editor-in-chief of Al-Arab News Channel who was assassinated at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on 2 October 2018 by agents of the Saudi government, allegedly at the behest of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

Saudi Arabian journalist, dissident, author, columnist for Middle East Eye and The Washington Post, and a general manager and editor-in-chief of Al-Arab News Channel who was assassinated at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on 2 October 2018 by agents of the Saudi government, allegedly at the behest of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

Khashoggi in March 2018
U.S. President Barack Obama participates in a roundtable interview after his speech A New Beginning on 4 June 2009, with, among others, Jamal Khashoggi, Bambang Harymurti and Nahum Barnea.
Khashoggi at a 2018 Project on Middle East Democracy forum called "Mohammed bin Salman's Saudi Arabia: A Deeper Look." on 21 March 2018
Khashoggi criticized the arrest of women's rights activist Loujain al-Hathloul in May 2018.
Khashoggi in Saudi Arabia in 2011
Prince Mohammed bin Salman and his advisor Ahmad Asiri (blamed for Khashoggi's death) meeting U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, July 2016
U.S. Senator Ron Wyden at "Justice for Jamal: The United States and Saudi Arabia One Year After the Khashoggi Murder", the Project on Middle East Democracy (POMED) and 12 other human rights organizations held a public event on Capitol Hill to commemorate his life, to call for accountability, and to cast a light on the repression of those who are perceived to be critical of crown prince bin Salman and his regime.
A "Khashoggi Way" street sign put up in front of the White House by activists in February 2019

Khashoggi fled Saudi Arabia in September 2017 and went into self-imposed exile.

Fractional distillation apparatus.

Petroleum

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Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Fractional distillation apparatus.
Oil derrick in Okemah, Oklahoma, 1922.
Shale bings near Broxburn, 3 of a total of 19 in West Lothian.
This wartime propaganda poster promoted carpooling as a way to ration vital gasoline during World War II.
Unconventional resources are much larger than conventional ones.
Octane, a hydrocarbon found in petroleum. Lines represent single bonds; black spheres represent carbon; white spheres represent hydrogen.
Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. Treibs noted the close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right).
A hydrocarbon trap consists of a reservoir rock (yellow) where oil (red) can accumulate, and a caprock (green) that prevents it from egressing.
Some marker crudes with their sulfur content (horizontal) and API gravity (vertical) and relative production quantity.
Nominal and inflation-adjusted US dollar price of crude oil, 1861–2015.
Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption, gray represents no data) (source: see file description).
Diesel fuel spill on a road.
Seawater acidification.
Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, from 1800. {{legend|black|Total}}{{legend|blue|Oil}}
Rate of world energy usage per year from 1970.<ref name="BP-Report-2012">BP: Statistical Review of World Energy {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130516003736/http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037130&contentId=7068669 |date=May 16, 2013 }}, Workbook (xlsx), London, 2012</ref>
Daily oil consumption from 1980 to 2006.
Oil consumption by percentage of total per region from 1980 to 2006: {{legend|red|US}}{{legend|blue|Europe}}{{legend|#D1D117|Asia and Oceania}}.
Oil consumption 1980 to 2007 by region.

The top three oil producing countries are Russia, Saudi Arabia and the United States.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)

Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

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Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)
The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain.
April Glaspie's first meeting with Saddam Hussein
An Iraqi Type 69 tank on display at the site of the Al-Qurain Martyrdom
A Kuwait M-84 tank during Operation Desert Shield in 1990. Kuwait continues to maintain strong relations with the coalition of the Gulf War.
Ground troop movements from 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
American tanks from the 3rd Armored Division during Operation Desert Storm.
More than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells were set on fire by retreating Iraqi forces, causing massive environmental and economic damage to Kuwait.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait
Aerial view of oil wells on fire
US troops in Kuwait, 2015

The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days, most of the Kuwaiti military was either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or retreated to neighboring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

Riyadh, the financial center of Saudi Arabia

Economy of Saudi Arabia

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Riyadh, the financial center of Saudi Arabia
A map of world oil reserves according to OPEC, 2013
Saudi Arabian exports in 2006

The economy of Saudi Arabia is the largest of the Arab States and the eighteenth-largest in the world.

Ensaf Haidar, the wife of Raif Badawi. In 2014, Badawi was fined 1,000,000 riyal, sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1000 lashes for "insulting Islam" and "blasphemy".

Human rights in Saudi Arabia

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Human rights in Saudi Arabia are a topic of concern and controversy.

Human rights in Saudi Arabia are a topic of concern and controversy.

Ensaf Haidar, the wife of Raif Badawi. In 2014, Badawi was fined 1,000,000 riyal, sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1000 lashes for "insulting Islam" and "blasphemy".
Women's rights activist Loujain al-Hathloul was arrested in May 2018
Road sign on a highway into Mecca, stating that one direction is "Muslims only" while another direction is "obligatory for non-Muslims". Religious police are stationed beyond the turnoff on the main road to prevent non-Muslims from proceeding into Mecca and Medina.
A protest outside the Saudi Arabian Embassy in London against detention of Raif Badawi, 13 January 2017
Abdullah al-Hamid has been imprisoned seven times for supporting the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in Saudi Arabia. He has been serving an 11-year jail sentence since 2013.
Jamal Khashoggi was murdered by Saudis in Turkey, because of his opposition to the government
Last known photo of Dina Ali (left), on 10 April 2017
On 16 October 2018, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman met with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to discuss the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi, who was a vocal critic of the Saudi regime.
Human Rights Watch criticized U.S. President Barack Obama for not addressing human rights concerns in Saudi Arabia.

Qorvis MSLGroup, a U.S. subsidiary of Publicis Groupe, has been working with Saudi Arabia amidst its executions of political protesters and opponents for more than a decade to whitewash its record of human rights abuses.

Oil prices in USD, 1861–2015 (1861–1944 averaged US crude oil, 1945–1983 Arabian Light, 1984–2015 Brent). Red line adjusted for inflation, blue not adjusted.

1973 oil crisis

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Oil prices in USD, 1861–2015 (1861–1944 averaged US crude oil, 1945–1983 Arabian Light, 1984–2015 Brent). Red line adjusted for inflation, blue not adjusted.
An American at a service station reads about the gasoline rationing system in an afternoon newspaper; a sign in the background states that no gasoline is available. 1974
Gas stealers beware, 1974
Oregon gasoline dealers displayed signs explaining the flag policy in the winter of 1973–74
Gasoline ration stamps printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1974, but not used
Gas stations abandoned during the crisis were sometimes used for other purposes. This station at Potlatch, Washington, was turned into a revival hall.
A woman uses wood in a fireplace for heat. A newspaper headline before her tells of the community's lack of heating oil.
Graph of oil prices from 1861 to 2015, showing a sharp increase in 1973 and again during the 1979 energy crisis. The orange line is adjusted for inflation.
Fluctuations of OPEC net oil export revenues since 1972<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/OPEC_Revenues/OPEC.html|title=OPEC Revenues Fact Sheet|publisher=US Energy Information Administration|date=January 10, 2006|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080107014809/http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/OPEC_Revenues/OPEC.html|archive-date=January 7, 2008 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/regions-topics.cfm?RegionTopicID=OPEC|title=OPEC Revenues Fact Sheet|publisher=U.S. Energy Information Administration|date=June 14, 2016|access-date=August 25, 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222161556/http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/regions-topics.cfm?RegionTopicID=OPEC|archive-date=December 22, 2015|url-status=live}}</ref>
USA oil production and imports.
The price of oil during the embargo. The graph is based on the nominal, not real, price of oil, and so overstates prices at the end.

The 1973 oil crisis or first oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), led by Saudi Arabia, proclaimed an oil embargo.

Al Jazeera

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State-owned Arabic-language international radio broadcaster of Qatar.

State-owned Arabic-language international radio broadcaster of Qatar.

Al Jazeera Arabic building
Wadah Khanfar, former Director General of Al Jazeera Media Network
Al Jazeera English newsroom, 2011

The channel has been criticised by some organisations as well as nations such as Saudi Arabia for being "Qatari propaganda".