A report on Saudi Arabia

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

- Saudi Arabia

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Al Waleed in 2015

Al Waleed bin Talal Al Saud

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Saudi Arabian billionaire businessman, investor, philanthropist and royal.

Saudi Arabian billionaire businessman, investor, philanthropist and royal.

Al Waleed in 2015
The Savoy Hotel in London is owned by Al Waleed
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His first wife, Dalal, as a child, standing between her father King Saud and John F. Kennedy

On 4 November 2017, Al Waleed and other prominent Saudis (including fellow billionaires Waleed bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim and Saleh Abdullah Kamel) were arrested in Saudi Arabia, in a purge that the Saudi government characterized as an anti-corruption drive.

Poster for the Saudi Arabia's women to drive movement, artwork by Carlos Latuff.

2011–2012 Saudi Arabian protests

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Poster for the Saudi Arabia's women to drive movement, artwork by Carlos Latuff.
Women's rights activist Manal al-Sharif, one of the organizers of the women's right-to-drive campaign

The protests in Saudi Arabia were part of the Arab Spring that started with the 2011 Tunisian revolution.

South Arabia

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South Arabian forehead ornament, probably late 1800s, made of gold, pearls, turquoise, gemstones, exhibited in the Dallas Museum of Art (Dallas, Texas, US)
Flag of Federation of South Arabia, Protectorate of British Empire.

South Arabia (جنوب الجزيرة العربية) is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.

Northeast Dammam, Saihat, Qatif, Tarout Island, and Ras Tanura, taken from the International Space Station.

Tarout Island

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Northeast Dammam, Saihat, Qatif, Tarout Island, and Ras Tanura, taken from the International Space Station.
The Worshiping Servant statue (2500 BC)
Coast of tarout bay

Tārūt Island (جزيرة تاروت) is an island in the Persian Gulf belonging to the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, connected by two causeways to Qatif.

Flag of Tahrir al-Sham, a Sunni militant group. Qatar is accused of paying the group $140 million in a deal that saw the release of hostages. According to an Iraqi Shi'ite militia, the deal was linked to delivery of humanitarian aid to Shi'ite and Sunni villages in Syria.

Qatar diplomatic crisis

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Diplomatic incident that began on 5 June 2017 when Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt severed diplomatic relations with Qatar and banned Qatar-registered planes and ships from utilising their airspace and sea routes, along with Saudi Arabia blocking Qatar’s only land crossing.

Diplomatic incident that began on 5 June 2017 when Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt severed diplomatic relations with Qatar and banned Qatar-registered planes and ships from utilising their airspace and sea routes, along with Saudi Arabia blocking Qatar’s only land crossing.

Flag of Tahrir al-Sham, a Sunni militant group. Qatar is accused of paying the group $140 million in a deal that saw the release of hostages. According to an Iraqi Shi'ite militia, the deal was linked to delivery of humanitarian aid to Shi'ite and Sunni villages in Syria.
US President Donald Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh Summit. The meeting is cited as one of the catalysts for the crisis.
Yousef Al-Otaiba
Maps showing the routes taken by Qatar Airways flights leaving Doha before and after the embargo was imposed. Data taken from FlightRadar24.
United States President Donald Trump with the Emir of Qatar Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, May 2017.
US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson being escorted to his meeting with the Emir of Qatar, Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani on July 11, 2017.
Turkey has supported Qatar in its diplomatic confrontation with a Saudi and Emirati-led bloc of countries
Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) in Qatar provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, and 17 other nations.

On 4 January 2021, Qatar and Saudi Arabia agreed to a resolution of the crisis brokered by Kuwait and the United States.

U.S. President Donald Trump with the King of Saudi Arabia Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in Riyadh, May 2017.

Saudi Arabia–United States relations

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U.S. President Donald Trump with the King of Saudi Arabia Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in Riyadh, May 2017.
King Ibn Saud converses with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on board the USS Quincy, after the Yalta Conference in 1945.
President Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon with their host, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, at the Mayflower Hotel in 1957
King Saud and John Kennedy meet at the king's mansion in Palm Beach, Florida in 1962
King Fahd with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Ivana and Donald Trump in 1985. The U.S. and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.
U.S. President George W. Bush and Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia in Crawford, Texas, April 25, 2002
Former Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the White House.
Prince Mohammad bin Salman with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Washington, D.C., June 13, 2016
Prince Mohammed bin Salman and his advisor Ahmad Asiri (blamed for Khashoggi's death) meeting U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, July 2016
Protesters against the U.S.-backed Saudi-led war on Yemen were led away handcuffed by New York police outside the U.S. mission to the UN on December 11, 2017
U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin and Saudi Prince Khalid bin Salman, July 2021
Visa page from Saeed al-Ghamdi's Kingdom of Saudi Arabia passport recovered from the United Airlines Flight 93 crash site
15 out of 19 September 11 terrorists were Saudi Arabia nationals
Protest against U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, March 2018
Jamal Khashoggi (left) at a 2018 Project on Middle East Democracy forum in Washington, D.C.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry with King Salman of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh, August 25, 2016
U.S. Navy has actively participated in the Saudi-led naval blockade of Yemen.
U.S. President Barack Obama shakes hands with King Salman in Riyadh, January 2015
U.S. President Donald Trump, King Salman, and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, May 2017
Protest against the war in Yemen in New York City on August 14, 2020

Bilateral relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States began in 1933 when full diplomatic relations were established and became formalized in the 1951 Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement.

Saudi soldiers fighting their way into the Ka'aba underground beneath the Grand Mosque of Mecca, 1979.

Grand Mosque seizure

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Saudi soldiers fighting their way into the Ka'aba underground beneath the Grand Mosque of Mecca, 1979.
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979.
Surviving insurgents in custody of Saudi authorities (c. 1979).
Surviving insurgents in custody of Saudi authorities (c. 1979).

The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram, the holiest mosque in Islam, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Bin Laden, c. undefined 1997–98

Osama bin Laden

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Founder of the Pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda.

Founder of the Pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda.

Bin Laden, c. undefined 1997–98
Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir interviewing Osama bin Laden in 1997. The AKS-74U in the background is a symbol of the mujadin's victory over the Soviets, since these weapons were captured from Spetsnaz forces.
United Airlines Flight 175 crashes into the South Tower
2001 video of bin Laden
Delta Force GIs disguised as Afghan civilians, while they searched for bin Laden in November 2001
Bin Laden was in Afghanistan's White Mountains before the US attack in the Battle of Tora Bora
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Map showing the U.S. operation from its bases in Afghanistan to Pakistan that killed bin Laden, and the subsequent burial of his body at sea
Website of the Federal Bureau of Investigation listing bin Laden as deceased on the Most Wanted List on 3 May 2011

From 1979 to 1992, the United States (as part of CIA activities in Afghanistan, specifically Operation Cyclone), Saudi Arabia, and China provided between $6–12 billion worth of financial aid and weapons to tens of thousands of mujahideen through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).

Emirate of Nejd

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The Emirate of Nejd or Imamate of Nejd was the Second Saudi State, existing between 1824 and 1891 in Nejd, the regions of Riyadh and Ha'il of what is now Saudi Arabia.

Ḥa'il Province

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Qishlah palace in Ha'il

Ḥail Province (مِنْطَقَة حَائِل Minṭaqat Ḥāʾil), also known as the Ha'il Region, is one of the 13 provinces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.