Saudi Arabia

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

- Saudi Arabia

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Flag of the Ikhwan

Ikhwan

Flag of the Ikhwan
Hand-painted image in January 1930 of the Sheikh of the Mutair tribe and one of the most prominent leaders of the Brotherhood Faisal bin Sultan Al-Duwish
One of the leaders of Ikhwan Sultan bin Bajad Al-Otaibi
Soldiers from akhwan min taʽa Allah Army on Camels carrying the Flags of the Third Saudi State, and Flag of Saud dynasty, Flag and the akhwan Army.
Ikhwan men taa Allah flag

The Ikhwan (الإخوان, The Brethren), commonly known as Ikhwan men taa Allah (إخوان من أطاع الله), was a Wahhabi religious militia made up of traditionally nomadic tribesmen which formed a significant military force of the ruler Ibn Saud and played an important role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Al Waleed in 2015

Al Waleed bin Talal Al Saud

Saudi Arabian billionaire businessman, investor, philanthropist and royal.

Saudi Arabian billionaire businessman, investor, philanthropist and royal.

Al Waleed in 2015
The Savoy Hotel in London is owned by Al Waleed
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His first wife, Dalal, as a child, standing between her father King Saud and John F. Kennedy

On 4 November 2017, Al Waleed and other prominent Saudis (including fellow billionaires Waleed bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim and Saleh Abdullah Kamel) were arrested in Saudi Arabia, in a purge that the Saudi government characterized as an anti-corruption drive.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)

Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)
The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain.
April Glaspie's first meeting with Saddam Hussein
An Iraqi Type 69 tank on display at the site of the Al-Qurain Martyrdom
A Kuwait M-84 tank during Operation Desert Shield in 1990. Kuwait continues to maintain strong relations with the coalition of the Gulf War.
Ground troop movements from 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
American tanks from the 3rd Armored Division during Operation Desert Storm.
More than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells were set on fire by retreating Iraqi forces, causing massive environmental and economic damage to Kuwait.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait
Aerial view of oil wells on fire
US troops in Kuwait, 2015

The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days, most of the Kuwaiti military was either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or retreated to neighboring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

Al-Nusra Front fighters during the Syrian Civil War.

Al-Nusra Front

Salafist jihadist terrorist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.

Salafist jihadist terrorist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.

Al-Nusra Front fighters during the Syrian Civil War.
The scene at Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square after the attacks on 3 October 2012
Military situation in December 2015
An al-Nusra field commander outside a building jointly occupied by al-Nusra and Ahrar al-Sham in the city of Idlib, 30 March 2015
Idlib Governorate clashes in January–March 2017
An al-Nusra Front battalion training during the Syrian Civil War.

In October 2014, U.S. Vice President Joe Biden said that Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates had "poured hundreds of millions of dollars and tens of thousands of tons of weapons into anyone who would fight against Al-Assad, except that the people who were being supplied were al-Nusra, and al Qaeda, and the extremist elements of jihadis coming from other parts of the world."

Aerial view of the Great Mosque of Mecca

Masjid al-Haram

Aerial view of the Great Mosque of Mecca
The Kaaba
The Black Stone
Maqam Ibrahim's crystal dome
Mount Marwah within the mosque
Mount Safa
The well of Zamzam located beneath the floor (entrance now covered)

Masjid al-Haram (اَلْمَسْجِدُ ٱلْحَرَامُ), also known as the Great Mosque of Mecca, is a mosque that surrounds the Kaaba in Mecca, in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia.

Detainees listening to speeches in a camp in Lop County, Xinjiang, April 2017

Xinjiang internment camps

The Xinjiang internment camps, officially called vocational education and training centers (职业技能教育培训中心) by the government of China, are internment camps operated by the government of the Xinjiang and the Chinese Communist Party Provincial Standing Committee.

The Xinjiang internment camps, officially called vocational education and training centers (职业技能教育培训中心) by the government of China, are internment camps operated by the government of the Xinjiang and the Chinese Communist Party Provincial Standing Committee.

Detainees listening to speeches in a camp in Lop County, Xinjiang, April 2017
Number of re-education related government procurement bids in Xinjiang, 2016–2018, according to the Jamestown Foundation
Pages from the China Cables
Camp locations identified by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and Australian Strategic Policy Institute
People of Xinjiang protesting against the human rights violations in Bern, Switzerland
NPR reported that "Kazakhstan and its neighbors in the mostly Muslim region of Central Asia that have benefited from Chinese investment aren't speaking up for the Muslims inside internment camps in China".
Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman has defended China's re-education camps.

🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia

Qatif

Historical Qatif Souq
The statue of the Worshipping Servant (2500 BC) in a Praying Posture, carved from rough limestone from local stones, reaches a height of 94 cm. It is similar to the statues of Sumerian worshipers found in Mesopotamia. It was found by chance in 1966 on the island of Tarot while building a road to the archaeological hill and not in a regular excavation.
A pottery jar for preserving liquids is estimated to be from the third millennium BC. Found in the old castle in Qatif. It was found by chance while installing some devices for oil extraction nearby.
Husseini rituals during Ashura in Qatif.
Young girls wearing traditional clothing celebrate Qarqi'an in Qatif
Water tower
Tarout Castle
Tarout old village.

Qatif or Al-Qatif (ٱلْقَطِيف Al-Qaṭīf) is a governorate and urban area located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

Ambigram depicting Muhammad and Ali written in a single word. The 180 degrees inverted form shows both words.

Isma'ilism

Branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam.

Branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam.

Ambigram depicting Muhammad and Ali written in a single word. The 180 degrees inverted form shows both words.
Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, Egypt, erected by al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, an Ismāʿīlī Imām and Fatimid Caliph.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak.
View of Alamut besieged.
Ismāʿīlīs believe the Quran has two layers of meaning, the zāhir meaning apparent, and the bātin, meaning hidden.
Branching of Ismāʿilism within Shia Islam at a glance. (Note: Kaysani's Imam Hanafiyyah is a descendant of Ali from Ali's wife Khawlah, not Fatimah.)
The divisions of the Mustaali, sometimes referred to as Bohras.
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The biggest Ismaili community is in Gorno-Badakhshan, but Isma'ilis can be found in Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, Lebanon, Malaysia, Syria, Iran, Saudi Arabia, India, Jordan, Iraq, East Africa, Angola, Bangladesh, and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and Trinidad and Tobago.

Saleh in The Kremlin, 2004

Ali Abdullah Saleh

Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.

Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.

Saleh in The Kremlin, 2004
Young Ali Saleh in the Imamate Army of Yemen uniform
Saleh in 1988, as President of North Yemen
Saleh with George W. Bush in 2007
Vice President Dick Cheney and President Ali Abdullah Saleh discuss joint efforts to fight terrorist activity at a press conference in Sana'a, Yemen, 14 March 2002

On 23 November 2011, Saleh flew to Riyadh in neighbouring Saudi Arabia to sign the Gulf Cooperation Council plan for political transition, which he had previously spurned.

Location of foreign lands for the Mesopotamians, including Elam, Magan, Dilmun, Marhashi and Meluhha.

Dilmun

Ancient East Semitic-speaking civilization in Eastern Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.

Ancient East Semitic-speaking civilization in Eastern Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.

Location of foreign lands for the Mesopotamians, including Elam, Magan, Dilmun, Marhashi and Meluhha.
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Receipt for garments sent by boat to Dilmun in the 1st year of Ibbi-Sin's rule, circa 2028 BCE. British Museum BM 130462.
Bull's head, made of copper in the early period of Dilmun (ca. 2000 BC), discovered by Danish archeologists under Barbar Temple, Bahrain.
Correspondence between Ilī-ippašra, the governor of Dilmun, and Enlil-kidinni, the governor of Nippur, ca. 1350 BC
Dilmun stamp seal with hunters and goats, rectangular pen, ca early 2nd millennium BC
Ruins of a settlement, believed to be from the Dilmun civilization, in Sar, Bahrain
Location of burial mounds in Bahrain

Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Kuwait, and eastern Saudi Arabia.