Saudi Arabia

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

- Saudi Arabia

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Alpha

Emirate of Diriyah

Established in February 1727 (1139 AH).

Established in February 1727 (1139 AH).

The maximum limits reached by the first Saudi state during the reign of Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the year 1814.
Image of Abdullah bin Saud
The maximum limits reached by the first Saudi state during the reign of Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the year 1814.

They founded a Second Saudi State that lasted until 1891, and later a third state, Saudi Arabia, which the Al Saud continue to rule up to the present day.

Official portrait, 2017

Donald Trump

American politician, media personality, and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

American politician, media personality, and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

Official portrait, 2017
Trump at the New York Military Academy in 1964
Trump (far right) and wife Ivana in the receiving line of a state dinner for King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985, with U.S. president Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan
Trump Tower in Midtown Manhattan
Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City
Trump and New Jersey Generals quarterback Doug Flutie at a 1985 press conference in the lobby of Trump Tower
Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Trump at a New York Mets baseball game in 2009
Trump and President Bill Clinton in June 2000
Trump speaking at CPAC 2011
Trump campaigning in Arizona, March 2016.
2016 electoral vote results. Trump won 304–227
Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017
Trump is sworn in as president by Chief Justice John Roberts
Trump speaks to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017
Trump and group of officials and advisors on the way from White House complex to St. John's Church
Trump examines border wall prototypes in Otay Mesa, California.
Trump with the other G7 leaders at the 45th summit in France, 2019
Trump and Xi Jinping at 2018 G20 Summit.
Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit in Saudi Arabia
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meeting with Taliban delegation in Qatar in September 2020
Trump meets Kim Jong-un at the Singapore summit, June 2018
Putin and Trump shaking hands at the G20 Osaka summit, June 2019
Trump and his third Supreme Court nominee, Amy Coney Barrett.
Trump conducts a COVID-19 press briefing with members of the White House Coronavirus Task Force on March 15, 2020
Poland's president Andrzej Duda visited the White House on June 24, 2020, the first foreign leader to do so since the start of the pandemic.
Trump boards helicopter for COVID-19 treatment on October 2, 2020
Trump discharged on October 5, 2020, from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Members of House of Representatives vote on two articles of impeachment, December 18, 2019
Trump displaying the front page of The Washington Post reporting his acquittal by the Senate
Trump at a 2020 campaign rally in Arizona
2020 Electoral College results, Trump lost 232–306
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi signing the second impeachment of Trump
Trump speaks at the "Rally to Protect Our Elections" in Phoenix, Arizona, July 2021.
Trump talking to the press, March 2017
Fact-checkers from The Washington Post, the Toronto Star, and CNN compiled data on "false or misleading claims" (orange background), and "false claims" (violet foreground), respectively.

Trump actively supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and in 2017 signed a $110 billion agreement to sell arms to Saudi Arabia, In 2018, the USA provided limited intelligence and logistical support for the intervention.

Saudi soldiers fighting their way into the Ka'aba underground beneath the Grand Mosque of Mecca, 1979.

Grand Mosque seizure

Saudi soldiers fighting their way into the Ka'aba underground beneath the Grand Mosque of Mecca, 1979.
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979.
Surviving insurgents in custody of Saudi authorities (c. 1979).
Surviving insurgents in custody of Saudi authorities (c. 1979).

The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram, the holiest mosque in Islam, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Kingdom of Hejaz

State in the Hejaz region in the Middle East that included the western portion of the Arabian Peninsula ruled by the Hashemite dynasty.

State in the Hejaz region in the Middle East that included the western portion of the Arabian Peninsula ruled by the Hashemite dynasty.

Kingdom of Hejaz (green) within modern-day Saudi Arabia
Kingdom of Hejaz (green) within modern-day Saudi Arabia

On 23 September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd was unified with the other Saudi dominions, creating the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

U.S. President Donald Trump with the King of Saudi Arabia Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in Riyadh, May 2017.

Saudi Arabia–United States relations

U.S. President Donald Trump with the King of Saudi Arabia Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in Riyadh, May 2017.
King Ibn Saud converses with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on board the USS Quincy, after the Yalta Conference in 1945.
President Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon with their host, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, at the Mayflower Hotel in 1957
King Saud and John Kennedy meet at the king's mansion in Palm Beach, Florida in 1962
King Fahd with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Ivana and Donald Trump in 1985. The U.S. and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.
U.S. President George W. Bush and Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia in Crawford, Texas, April 25, 2002
Former Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the White House.
Prince Mohammad bin Salman with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Washington, D.C., June 13, 2016
Prince Mohammed bin Salman and his advisor Ahmad Asiri (blamed for Khashoggi's death) meeting U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, July 2016
Protesters against the U.S.-backed Saudi-led war on Yemen were led away handcuffed by New York police outside the U.S. mission to the UN on December 11, 2017
U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin and Saudi Prince Khalid bin Salman, July 2021
Visa page from Saeed al-Ghamdi's Kingdom of Saudi Arabia passport recovered from the United Airlines Flight 93 crash site
15 out of 19 September 11 terrorists were Saudi Arabia nationals
Protest against U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, March 2018
Jamal Khashoggi (left) at a 2018 Project on Middle East Democracy forum in Washington, D.C.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry with King Salman of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh, August 25, 2016
U.S. Navy has actively participated in the Saudi-led naval blockade of Yemen.
U.S. President Barack Obama shakes hands with King Salman in Riyadh, January 2015
U.S. President Donald Trump, King Salman, and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, May 2017

Bilateral relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States began in 1933 when full diplomatic relations were established and became formalized in the 1951 Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement.

Jannatul Baqi graveyard in Medina, Saudi Arabia

Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia

Jannatul Baqi graveyard in Medina, Saudi Arabia
Imam Zain al-Abidin desecrated grave at Al-Baqi' in Saudi Arabia

The destruction of heritage sites associated with early Islam is an ongoing phenomenon that has occurred mainly in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, particularly around the two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.

Jamal Khashoggi in March 2018

Assassination of Jamal Khashoggi

Assassinated by agents of the Saudi government at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.

Assassinated by agents of the Saudi government at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.

Jamal Khashoggi in March 2018
4 June 2009 − after his speech A New Beginning at Cairo University, U.S. President Obama participates in a roundtable interview with, among others, Jamal Khashoggi, Bambang Harymurti, and Nahum Barnea.
Saudi Arabian activist Ghanem al-Dosari at a protest outside the Natural History Museum, London, 11 October 2018, after the disappearance of Jamal Kashoggi. The Saudi embassy was holding a Saudi National Day celebration at the museum.
The Saudi consulate in Istanbul, 16 October 2018, after Khashoggi's disappearance.
Police cordon, in front of the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, after Khashoggi's disappearance.
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meets with King Salman on 16 October 2018.
Ahmad Asiri (right) and Mohammed bin Salman (left) in 2016
Protest in front of the Consulate General of Saudi Arabia in Istanbul following the murder of Jamal Khashoggi.

Khashoggi fled the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in June 2017 and went into self-imposed exile in the US.

Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894

Capital punishment

State-sanctioned practice of killing a person as a punishment for a crime.

State-sanctioned practice of killing a person as a punishment for a crime.

Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894
The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883). Roman Circus Maximus.
Beheading of John the Baptist, woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860
The Death of Socrates (1787), in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
The breaking wheel was used during the Middle Ages and was still in use into the 19th century.
The burning of Jakob Rohrbach, a leader of the peasants during the German Peasants' War.
Antiporta of Dei delitti e delle pene (On Crimes and Punishments), 1766 ed.
Mexican execution by firing squad, 1916
50 Poles tried and sentenced to death by a Standgericht in retaliation for the assassination of 1 German policeman in Nazi-occupied Poland, 1944
Emperor Shomu banned the death penalty in Japan in 724.
Peter Leopold II abolished the death penalty throughout Tuscany in 1786, making it the first nation in modern history to do so.
Mother Catherine Cauchés (center) and her two daughters Guillemine Gilbert (left) and Perotine Massey (right) with her infant son burning for heresy
The Red Guard prisoners are being executed by the Whites in Varkaus, North Savonia, during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
A sign at the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport warns arriving travelers that drug trafficking is a capital crime in the Republic of China (photo taken in 2005)
Execution of a war criminal in Germany in 1946
A gurney at San Quentin State Prison in California formerly used for executions by lethal injection
Capital punishment was abolished in the United Kingdom in part because of the case of Timothy Evans, who was executed in 1950 after being wrongfully convicted of two murders that had in fact been committed by his landlord, John Christie. The case was considered vital in bolstering opposition, which limited the scope of the penalty in 1957 and abolished it completely, for murder, in 1965.
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms the prohibition on capital punishment in the EU
Signatories to the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR: parties in dark green, signatories in light green, non-members in grey

Considering the Age of Majority is still not 18 in some countries or has not been clearly defined in law, since 1990 ten countries have executed offenders who were considered juveniles at the time of their crimes: The People's Republic of China (PRC), Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, the United States, and Yemen.

Fractional distillation apparatus.

Petroleum

Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Fractional distillation apparatus.
Oil derrick in Okemah, Oklahoma, 1922.
Shale bings near Broxburn, 3 of a total of 19 in West Lothian.
This wartime propaganda poster promoted carpooling as a way to ration vital gasoline during World War II.
Unconventional resources are much larger than conventional ones.
Octane, a hydrocarbon found in petroleum. Lines represent single bonds; black spheres represent carbon; white spheres represent hydrogen.
Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. Treibs noted the close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right).
A hydrocarbon trap consists of a reservoir rock (yellow) where oil (red) can accumulate, and a caprock (green) that prevents it from egressing.
Some marker crudes with their sulfur content (horizontal) and API gravity (vertical) and relative production quantity.
Nominal and inflation-adjusted US dollar price of crude oil, 1861–2015.
Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption, gray represents no data) (source: see file description).
Diesel fuel spill on a road.
Seawater acidification.
Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, from 1800. {{legend|black|Total}}{{legend|blue|Oil}}
Rate of world energy usage per year from 1970.<ref name="BP-Report-2012">BP: Statistical Review of World Energy {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130516003736/http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037130&contentId=7068669 |date=May 16, 2013 }}, Workbook (xlsx), London, 2012</ref>
Daily oil consumption from 1980 to 2006.
Oil consumption by percentage of total per region from 1980 to 2006: {{legend|red|US}}{{legend|blue|Europe}}{{legend|#D1D117|Asia and Oceania}}.
Oil consumption 1980 to 2007 by region.

The top three oil producing countries are Russia, Saudi Arabia and the United States.

Official portrait, 2017

Jim Mattis

Retired United States Marine Corps four-star general who served as the 26th US secretary of defense from January 2017 to January 2019.

Retired United States Marine Corps four-star general who served as the 26th US secretary of defense from January 2017 to January 2019.

Official portrait, 2017
Mattis addressing Marines at Camp Commando, Kuwait during Operation Enduring Freedom in February 2003.
Official portrait as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation
Letter written by Mattis on the eve of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, addressed to members of the 1st Marine Division
Vice President Joe Biden, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, Admiral Mike Mullen and General Mattis in Baghdad, Iraq, September 2010
General Lloyd Austin and Command Sgt. Maj. Joseph R. Allen greet Mattis as he arrives in Baghdad for the end-of-mission ceremony in December 2011.
Mattis with President Trump and Vice President Pence
Mattis with Finnish president Sauli Niinistö in Helsinki, Finland, in November 2017
Mattis and Turkish Defense Minister Nurettin Canikli at NATO headquarters in Brussels, February 2018
Mattis with Indonesian president Joko Widodo during a visit to Jakarta, Indonesia, in January 2018.
Mattis and Australian Minister for Defense Marise Payne visiting Victoria Barracks in Sydney, Australia, June 2017.
Mattis and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi in April 2017
Mattis with Saudi Arabia's prince Mohammad in March 2017
Mattis and Tillerson with Chinese General Fang Fenghui and State Councilor Yang Jiechi, June 2017
Mattis receiving the Distinguished Military Leadership Award from Michael Mullen at the annual Atlantic Council Awards Gala in Washington, D.C.

In a January 2017 phone call with Saudi Arabia's deputy crown prince Mohammed bin Salman, Mattis "reaffirmed the importance of the US–Saudi Arabia strategic relationship".