Saul

King Saulbattle of GilboaKing Saul of IsraelShaul Saul, King of IsraelBattle of Mount GilboaKing Saul BoulevardSaul and DavidSaul of JudahSaul, King of Israel
Saul (, meaning "asked for, prayed for"), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah.wikipedia
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Ish-bosheth

IshbaalEsh-baalEshbaʿal
The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and his son-in-law David, who eventually prevailed. Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, with whom he sired four sons (Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth) and two daughters (Merab and Michal).
According to the Hebrew Bible, Ish-bosheth (, Ishboshet), also called Eshbaal (, Eshbaal; also Ashbaal or Ishbaal), was one of the four sons of King Saul and was chosen as the second king over the Kingdom of Israel, which then consisted of all the Twelve Tribes of Israel, after the death of his father and three brothers at the Battle of Mount Gilboa.

Mount Gilboa

GilboaGilboa mountainsin the book of Samuel
He fell on his sword (committing suicide) to avoid capture in the battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. Saul died at the Battle of Mount Gilboa, and was buried in Zelah, in the region of Benjamin . Three of Saul's sons – Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua – died with him at Mount Gilboa.
In the Bible, King Saul, Israel's first King, led a charge against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa . The battle ends with the king falling on his own sword and Saul's sons, Jonathan, Abinadab, and Melchishua being killed in battle . King David, who hears about the tragedy after the battle, curses the mountain:

David

King DavidDavid and GoliathDavidic
The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and his son-in-law David, who eventually prevailed. After Samuel tells Saul that God has rejected him as king, David, a son of Jesse, from the tribe of Judah, enters the story: from this point on Saul's story is largely the account of his increasingly troubled relationship with David.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah after Saul and Ish-bosheth.

Kish (Bible)

Kishhis father
According to the Tanakh, Saul was the son of Kish, of the family of the Matrites, and a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve Tribes of Israel.
Kish (קיש qish; Kis, Keis, "bow," "power") (c. 1104 – c. 1029 BCE) was the father of the first king of the Israelites, Saul.

Books of Samuel

1 Samuel2 SamuelSamuel
The biblical accounts of Saul's life are found in the Books of Samuel:
The story of the Ark of the Covenant that follows tells of Israel's oppression by the Philistines, which brought about Samuel's anointing of Saul as Israel's first king.

Gibeah

Tell el FulGibeah of BenjaminGibeah of Saul
He was anointed by the prophet Samuel and reigned from Gibeah. Saul is sent with a servant to look for his father's strayed donkeys. Leaving his home at Gibeah, they eventually arrive at the district of Zuph, at which point Saul suggests abandoning their search. Saul's servant tells him that they happen to be near the town of Ramah, where a famous seer is located, and suggests that they should consult him first. The seer (later identified by the text as Samuel) offers hospitality to Saul and later anoints him in private (1 Samuel 9).
Other names include Gibeah of God (see ), Gibeah of Benjamin for it is in the territory of the Tribe of Benjamin, and Gibeah of Saul, where biblical King Saul lived.

Michal

Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, with whom he sired four sons (Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth) and two daughters (Merab and Michal).
Michal was, according to the first Book of Samuel, a princess of the United Kingdom of Israel; the younger daughter of King Saul, she was the first wife of David, who later became king, first of Judah, then of Israel.

List of minor Old Testament figures, A–K

AdahHobabBecher
Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, with whom he sired four sons (Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth) and two daughters (Merab and Michal). Saul also had a concubine named Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, who bore him two sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth.
2) The second of the eight sons of Jesse. He was with Saul in the campaign against the Philistines in which Goliath was slain.

Ahinoam

Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, with whom he sired four sons (Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth) and two daughters (Merab and Michal).
A daughter of Ahimaaz, who became a wife of Saul and the mother of his four sons and two daughters, one of whom is Michal, David's first wife.

Rizpah

Ritzpah
Saul also had a concubine named Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, who bore him two sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth.
Rizpah (riz'-pa, "coal", "hot stone") was the daughter of Aiah, and one of Saul's concubines.

Tribe of Benjamin

BenjaminBenjamiteBenjamites
According to the Tanakh, Saul was the son of Kish, of the family of the Matrites, and a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve Tribes of Israel. A popular movement having arisen to establish a centralized monarchy like other nations, Samuel assembles the people at Mizpah in Benjamin to appoint a king, fulfilling his previous promise to do so (1 Samuel 8). Samuel organises the people by tribe and by clan. Using the Urim and Thummim, he selects the tribe of Benjamin, from within the tribe selecting the clan of Matri, and from them selecting Saul. After having been chosen as monarch, Saul returns to his home in Gibeah, along with a number of followers (1 Samuel 10:17-24). However, some of the people are openly unhappy with the selection of Saul. Saul died at the Battle of Mount Gilboa, and was buried in Zelah, in the region of Benjamin . Three of Saul's sons – Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua – died with him at Mount Gilboa.
Responding to a growing threat from Philistine incursions, the Israelite tribes formed a strong, centralised monarchy during the eleventh century BC. The first king of this new entity was Saul, from the tribe of Benjamin, which at the time was the smallest of the tribes.

Anointing

anointedunctionanoint
Saul is sent with a servant to look for his father's strayed donkeys. Leaving his home at Gibeah, they eventually arrive at the district of Zuph, at which point Saul suggests abandoning their search. Saul's servant tells him that they happen to be near the town of Ramah, where a famous seer is located, and suggests that they should consult him first. The seer (later identified by the text as Samuel) offers hospitality to Saul and later anoints him in private (1 Samuel 9).
This continues an earlier Hebrew practice most famously observed in the anointings of Aaron as high priest and both Saul and David by the prophet Samuel.

Jonathan (1 Samuel)

JonathanJonathasYehonatan
Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, with whom he sired four sons (Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth) and two daughters (Merab and Michal).
A prince of the United Kingdom of Israel, he was the eldest son of King Saul as well as a close friend of David, who eventually succeeded Saul as king.

List of minor Old Testament figures, L–Z

ZillahRoshNer
Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, with whom he sired four sons (Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth) and two daughters (Merab and Michal). A popular movement having arisen to establish a centralized monarchy like other nations, Samuel assembles the people at Mizpah in Benjamin to appoint a king, fulfilling his previous promise to do so (1 Samuel 8). Samuel organises the people by tribe and by clan. Using the Urim and Thummim, he selects the tribe of Benjamin, from within the tribe selecting the clan of Matri, and from them selecting Saul. After having been chosen as monarch, Saul returns to his home in Gibeah, along with a number of followers (1 Samuel 10:17-24). However, some of the people are openly unhappy with the selection of Saul.
Laish is a name which appears in 1 Samuel 25:44 and 2 Samuel 3:15, where it is the name of the father of Palti, or Paltiel, the man who was married to Saul's daughter Michal before she was returned to David.

Philistines

PhilistinePhilistiaPeleset
He fell on his sword (committing suicide) to avoid capture in the battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. After relieving the siege of Jabesh-Gilead, Saul conducts military campaigns against the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Aram Rehob and the kings of Zobah, the Philistines, and the Amalekites . A biblical summary states that "wherever he turned, he was victorious".
On the basis of the LXX's regular translation into "allophyloi", Robert Drews states that the term "Philistines" means simply "non-Israelites of the Promised Land" when used in the context of Samson, Saul and David.

Armoni and Mephibosheth

Saul also had a concubine named Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, who bore him two sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth.
Armoni and Mephibosheth are the two sons of Saul, by his concubine Rizpah daughter of Aiah, in Second Samuel chapter 21.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
He fell on his sword (committing suicide) to avoid capture in the battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed.
John Donne's work Biathanatos, contained one of the first modern defences of suicide, bringing proof from the conduct of Biblical figures, such as Jesus, Samson and Saul, and presenting arguments on grounds of reason and nature to sanction suicide in certain circumstances.

Urim and Thummim

UrimYour Thummim and Your UrimLight and truth
A popular movement having arisen to establish a centralized monarchy like other nations, Samuel assembles the people at Mizpah in Benjamin to appoint a king, fulfilling his previous promise to do so (1 Samuel 8). Samuel organises the people by tribe and by clan. Using the Urim and Thummim, he selects the tribe of Benjamin, from within the tribe selecting the clan of Matri, and from them selecting Saul. After having been chosen as monarch, Saul returns to his home in Gibeah, along with a number of followers (1 Samuel 10:17-24). However, some of the people are openly unhappy with the selection of Saul.
In the version of this passage in the Masoretic Text, it describes Saul and Jonathan being separated from the rest of the people, and lots being cast between them; the Septuagint version, however, states that Urim would indicate Saul and Jonathan, while Thummim would indicate the people.

Zobah

Aram-ZobahAram ZobaAram-Sôvah
After relieving the siege of Jabesh-Gilead, Saul conducts military campaigns against the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Aram Rehob and the kings of Zobah, the Philistines, and the Amalekites . A biblical summary states that "wherever he turned, he was victorious".
In I Samuel 14:47, the kings of Zobah were said to have fought with Israelite king Saul, but this is unconfirmed.

Nahash of Ammon

NahashNahash the Ammonite
The Ammonites, led by Nahash, lay siege to Jabesh-Gilead. Under the terms of surrender, the occupants of the city are to be forced into slavery and have their right eyes removed. Instead they send word of this to the other tribes of Israel, and the tribes west of the Jordan assemble an army under Saul. Saul leads the army to victory over the Ammonites, and the people congregate at Gilgal where they acclaim Saul as king and he is crowned (1 Samuel 11). Saul's first act is to forbid retribution against those who had previously contested his kingship.
The occupants sought help from the people of Israel, sending messengers throughout the whole territory, and Saul, a herdsman at this time, responded by raising an army which decisively defeated Nahash and his cohorts at Bezek.

Doeg the Edomite

DoegDō’êḡ the Edomite
Saul is later informed by his head shepherd, Doeg the Edomite, that high priest Ahimelech assisted David, giving him the sword of Goliath, which had been kept at the temple at Nob.
Doeg (דּוֹיֵג Dō’êḡ) was an Edomite, chief herdsman to Saul, King of Israel.

Zelah, Judea

ZelahplaceZela
Saul died at the Battle of Mount Gilboa, and was buried in Zelah, in the region of Benjamin . Three of Saul's sons – Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua – died with him at Mount Gilboa.
Zelah or Zela was a place in the territory of the Tribe of Benjamin, ancient Judea, known as the burial place of King Saul, his father Kish and his son Jonathan.

Jabesh-Gilead

The Ammonites, led by Nahash, lay siege to Jabesh-Gilead. Under the terms of surrender, the occupants of the city are to be forced into slavery and have their right eyes removed. Instead they send word of this to the other tribes of Israel, and the tribes west of the Jordan assemble an army under Saul. Saul leads the army to victory over the Ammonites, and the people congregate at Gilgal where they acclaim Saul as king and he is crowned (1 Samuel 11). Saul's first act is to forbid retribution against those who had previously contested his kingship.
Jabesh Gilead is primarily mentioned in connection with King Saul's and King David's battles against the Philistines and Ammonites.

Goliath

David and GoliathDavid versus GoliathDavid-and-Goliath
The Philistines return with an army to attack Israel, and the Philistine and Israelite forces gather on opposite sides of a valley. The Philistine's champion Goliath issues a challenge for single combat, but none of the Israelite accept. David is described as a young shepherd who happens to be delivering food to his three eldest brothers in the army, and he hears Goliath's challenge. David speaks mockingly of the Philistines to some soldiers; his speech is overheard and reported to Saul, who summons David and appoints David as his champion. David easily defeats Goliath with a single shot from a sling. At the end of the passage, Saul asks his general, Abner, who David is.
The story signified Saul's unfitness to rule, as Saul himself should have fought for the Kingdom of Israel.

Tribe of Judah

JudahTribes of Judahhouse of Judah
After Samuel tells Saul that God has rejected him as king, David, a son of Jesse, from the tribe of Judah, enters the story: from this point on Saul's story is largely the account of his increasingly troubled relationship with David.
The Book of Samuel describes God's repudiation of a monarchic line arising from the northern Tribe of Benjamin due to the sinfulness of King Saul, which was then bestowed onto the Tribe of Judah for all time in the person of King David.