A report on Sweden and Scandinavia

Galdhøpiggen is the highest point in Scandinavia and is a part of the Scandinavian Mountains.
A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to Scania, a formerly Danish region that became Swedish in the seventeenth century.
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
The original areas inhabited (during the Bronze Age) by the peoples now known as Scandinavians included what is now Northern Germany (particularly Schleswig-Holstein), all of Denmark, southern Sweden, the southern coast of Norway and Åland in Finland while namesake Scania found itself in the centre.
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Scandinavism—a Norwegian, a Dane and a Swede.
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages ([[:File:Sami languages large 2.png|legend]])
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
The Kalmar Union (c. 1400)
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
Continental Scandinavian languages: Danish Norwegian
Swedish
Insular Scandinavian languages:Faroese
Icelandic
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
Scania in southern Sweden
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Municipal divisions of Sweden
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Stockholm Central Station
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
Uppsala University (established 1477)
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Djurgårdsbron
Kalmar Cathedral
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

In English usage, Scandinavia most commonly refers to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

- Scandinavia

After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the dominance of the Hanseatic League in Northern Europe threatened Scandinavia economically and politically.

- Sweden

18 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Denmark

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Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot dating from the Nordic Bronze Age
The Ladby ship, the largest ship burial found in Denmark.
Larger of the two Jelling stones, raised by Harald Bluetooth
Extent of the Dano-Norwegian Realm. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.
The Assault on Copenhagen on 11 February 1659 during the Second Northern War. Danish defenders under King Frederick III successfully repelled the forces of the Swedish Empire. Painting by Frederik Christian Lund.
The National Constitutional Assembly was convened by King Frederick VII in 1848 to adopt the Constitution of Denmark.
Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
A satellite image of Jutland and the Danish islands
A map showing major urban areas, islands and connecting bridges
Bay of Aarhus viewed from southern Djursland
Beech trees are common throughout Denmark, especially in the sparse woodlands.
The European Environment Agency in Copenhagen
Christiansborg Palace houses the Folketing, the Supreme Court, and government offices.
King Christian V presiding over the Supreme Court in 1697.
The village of Kunoy on Kunoy island, in the Faroe Islands. Kalsoy island is at right.
Danish prime minister Mette Frederiksen (second from left) with foreign counterparts at the Nordic Council in Copenhagen, 2021
Danish MP-soldiers conducting advanced law enforcement training
A proportional representation of Denmark exports, 2019
Lego bricks are produced by The Lego Group, headquartered in Billund.
Denmark is a major producer and exporter of pork products.
With an investment of 8.5 million euros over the ten-year construction period, Denmark confirms participation in E-ELT.
Middelgrunden, an offshore wind farm near Copenhagen
Denmark railway network
Copenhagen Airport is the largest airport in Scandinavia and the 15th-busiest in Europe.
Roskilde Cathedral has been the burial place of Danish royalty since the 15th century. In 1995 it became a World Heritage Site.
The oldest surviving Danish lecture plan dated 1537 from the University of Copenhagen
Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen
Mjølnerparken in Copenhagen
Statue of philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
Director Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme film movement
Grundtvig's Church in Copenhagen, an example of expressionist architecture
A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen (1836), by Christian Albrecht Jensen
Woman in Front of a Mirror, (1841), by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Smørrebrød, a variety of Danish open sandwiches piled high with delicacies
Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish football player of all time by the Danish Football Union

European Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying southwest of Sweden, south of Norway, and north of Germany.

Scania

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The two counties of Scania from 1719 to 1996
Letter from Eric of Pomerania dated 1437, with a description of the arms granted to the city of Malmö.
The coat of arms of Scania in an engraving from 1712 in Erik Dahlbergh's Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna.
Ale's Stones, a stone ship (burial monument) from c. 500 AD on the coast at Kåseberga, around ten kilometres (10 km) south east of Ystad.
Map of Denmark in the Middle Ages, Scania was together with the provinces Blekinge and Halland a part of Denmark
Front page of the latest and current peace treaty between Denmark and Sweden, Swedish version
The motorway through western Scania, E6, here at motorway service Glumslöv, is the artery of the western part of the province.
All local, regional and inter-regional train services within Scania (2018). In all, 72 stations are served, during day times at least one train per hour and direction. Many stations (especially in the west) have far better service than so. The most busy part is between Hyllie (Malmö) and Lund.
Land usage in Scania, showing hardwood forests (light green), pinewood forests (dark green), fields (yellow), garden and fruit (orange) and residential areas (red)
Aerial view of Scania near Lund
A typical Beech forest, the Western edge of Karlslund in Northern Landskrona
Pruned willows and rapefields are typical for this area of Sweden.
Typical Scanian coastline, here southern peak of Ven island in Øresund. The yellow colour indicates sand rather than chalk, while white colour at similar cliffs indicates chalk rather than sand
Map of the 33 municipalities of Scania. The western, yellow coloured municipalities, close to Øresund, have much higher population densities than the eastern ones
Eslöv church, built 1890 in Neo-Gothic style, sometimes known in Swedish as Eslöv Gothic.
The Øresund Bridge
The Annehem neighborhood in Lund
The Turning Torso in Malmö, the tallest building in Sweden.
Location of some SMHI temperature stations in Scania
Traditional half-timbered farm house of the southern plains in Scania.
The house of magistrate Jacob Hansen in Helsingborg, built in 1641.
The Old Church of Södra Åsum in Sjöbo Municipality — a typical example of a medieval Danish Scanian church.
Lund skyline, with the Cathedral towers.
Vittskövle Castle.
Traditional Scanian nuptial array according to Auguste Racinet, in Le costume historique.

Scania is the southernmost of the historical provinces (landskap) of Sweden.

Scania's largest city, Malmö, is the third-largest city in Sweden, as well as the fifth-largest in Scandinavia.

Kalmar Union

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The Kalmar Union, c. 1400
The Kalmar Union, c. 1400

The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Kalmarunionen; Finnish: Kalmarin unioni; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union in Scandinavia, agreed at Kalmar in Sweden, that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of present-day Finland), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas colonies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland).

The Rök runestone in Östergötland, Sweden, is the longest surviving source of early Old East Norse. It is inscribed on both sides.

Old Norse

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Stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages.

Stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages.

The Rök runestone in Östergötland, Sweden, is the longest surviving source of early Old East Norse. It is inscribed on both sides.

Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements and chronologically coincides with the Viking Age, the Christianization of Scandinavia and the consolidation of Scandinavian kingdoms from about the 7th to the 15th centuries.

For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden.

Danish language

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North Germanic language spoken by about six million people, principally in Denmark, as well as Greenland (about 10% of the population speak Danish as their first language owing to immigration), the Faroe Islands, and the northern German region of Southern Schleswig, where it has minority language status.

North Germanic language spoken by about six million people, principally in Denmark, as well as Greenland (about 10% of the population speak Danish as their first language owing to immigration), the Faroe Islands, and the northern German region of Southern Schleswig, where it has minority language status.

Danish label reading militærpoliti, "military police", on a police vehicle
Language shift in the 19th century in southern Schleswig
Learn Danish banner in Flensburg, Germany, where it is an officially recognized regional language
Map of Danish dialects
A map showing the distribution of stød in Danish dialects: Dialects in the pink areas have stød, as in standard Danish, while those in the green ones have tones, as in Swedish and Norwegian. Dialects in the blue areas have (like Icelandic, German, and English) neither stød nor tones.
The distribution of one, two, and three grammatical genders in Danish dialects. In Zealand, the transition from three to two genders has happened fairly recently. West of the red line, the definite article goes before the word as in English or German; east of the line it takes the form of a suffix.
Danish keyboard with keys for Æ, Ø, and Å

Minor Danish-speaking communities are also found in Norway, Sweden, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina.

Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples who lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Effigy of Queen Margaret from 1423 on her tomb in Roskilde Cathedral.

Margaret I of Denmark

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Effigy of Queen Margaret from 1423 on her tomb in Roskilde Cathedral.
An allegory of the inception of the Kalmar Union: Queen Margaret crowning Eric of Pomerania king of Norway, as depicted in a stained-glass window at Pena Palace, Portugal.
Seal of Margaret, in known use 1381–1409.
Margaret's elaborate tomb, near subsequent royal sarcophagi at Roskilde Cathedral.
Bust of Margaret from her own time.
Margaret with Eric at his coronation, as Hans Peter Hansen imagined the scene in 1884.

Margaret I (Margrete Valdemarsdatter; March 1353 – 28 October 1412) was ruler of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (which included Finland) from the late 1380s until her death, and the founder of the Kalmar Union that joined the Scandinavian kingdoms together for over a century.

Margaret, free from fear of domestic sedition, could now give her undivided attention to Sweden, where mutinous nobles, led by Birger (son of Bridget and brother of Martha), were already in arms against their unpopular King Albert.

A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

Northern Europe

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The northern region of Europe has several definitions.

The northern region of Europe has several definitions.

A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
European climate. The Köppen climate classification map is presented by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center of the Deutscher Wetterdienst.
Northern Europe, as defined by the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions
Map of Europe showing the largest religions by region. Eastern Christianity is represented in blue, Islam in green, and the other colors represent branches of Western Christianity.
A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
Subregions of Europe by United Nations geoscheme.
 Eastern Europe
Northern Europe
Southern Europe
Western Europe
European sub-regions according to EuroVoc:
 Northern Europe
Western Europe
Southern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook:
 Northern Europe
Western Europe
Central Europe
Southwest Europe
Southern Europe
Southeast Europe
Eastern Europe

Christianity reached the peoples of Scandinavia and the Baltic region in later centuries.

Sweden

A satellite view of the Scandinavian Peninsula

Scandinavian Peninsula

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A satellite view of the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula in relation to the larger Fennoscandia
Relief map of the Scandinavian Peninsula
The Union between Sweden and Norway
political borders in 1888

The Scandinavian Peninsula (Skandinaviska halvön; Den skandinaviske halvøy (Bokmål) or Den skandinaviske halvøya; Skandinavian niemimaa) is a peninsula located in Northern Europe, which roughly comprises the mainlands of Sweden, Norway and the northwestern area of Finland.

The name of the peninsula is derived from the term Scandinavia, the cultural region of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Viking Age picture stone, Gotland, Sweden.

Viking Age

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The period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe and reached North America.

The period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe and reached North America.

Viking Age picture stone, Gotland, Sweden.
Viking voyages in the North Atlantic
Viking expansion in Europe between the 8th and 11th centuries: The yellow colour corresponds to the expansion of the Normans, only partly descending from the Vikings
Viking-era towns of Scandinavia
Viking expeditions (blue line): depicting the immense breadth of their voyages through most of Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, the Arctic, and North America. Lower Normandy, depicted as a ″Viking territory in 911″, was not part of the lands granted by the king of the Franks to Rollo in 911, but Upper Normandy.
Anglo-Saxon-Viking coin weight, used for trading bullion and hacksilver: Material is lead and weighs around 36 g. It is embedded with an Anglo-Saxon sceat (Series K type 32a) dating to 720–750 and minted in Kent. It is edged in a dotted triangle pattern. Origin is the Danelaw region and dates to 870–930.
"Irishmen oppose the landing of the Viking fleet", a painting in Dublin City Hall by James Ward (c.1914).
The Iru Fort in Northern Estonia
Longship on Tjängvide image stone, Sweden 800–1099.
Stone ships at Altes Lager Menzlin
Statue in Catoira, Galicia, commemorating the Viking invasions
The last written records of the Norse Greenlanders are from a 1408 marriage in the Church of Hvalsey.
Modern replica of a Viking longship
A typical fortified Viking town. This is a model of the town of Aros about 950. The town is now known as Aarhus
The fortified Viking Age town of Aros

The Viking Age applies not only to their homeland of Scandinavia but also to any place significantly settled by Scandinavians during the period.

Voyaging by sea from their homelands in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, the Norse people settled in the British Isles, Ireland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, Normandy, and the Baltic coast and along the Dnieper and Volga trade routes in eastern Europe, where they were also known as Varangians.

Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark

Nordic model

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Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Vote percentage over time of the main social democratic parties in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway 
Labour Party (Norway)
Swedish Social Democratic Party 
Social Democrats (Denmark)
Social Democratic Party of Finland

The Nordic model comprises the economic and social policies as well as typical cultural practices common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

The three Scandinavian countries are constitutional monarchies, while Finland and Iceland have been republics since the 20th century.