Scattering

light scatteringscatteredscatterscattersmultiple scatteringscattered lightscattering processcoherent scatteringoptical scatteringradiation scattering
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.wikipedia
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Diffuse reflection

diffusemattediffuse interreflection
Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.

Scattering theory

theoryscatteringanomalous and direct scattering
The effects of such features on the path of almost any type of propagating wave or moving particle can be described in the framework of scattering theory.
In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics

optical scienceoptical physicsatomic and molecular physics
Particle-particle scattering theory is important in areas such as particle physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics.
Typically, the theory and applications of emission, absorption, scattering of electromagnetic radiation (light) from excited atoms and molecules, analysis of spectroscopy, generation of lasers and masers, and the optical properties of matter in general, fall into these categories.

Particle physics

high energy physicsparticle physicisthigh-energy physics
Particle-particle scattering theory is important in areas such as particle physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics.
Modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles, including atomic constituents such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are composite particles called baryons, made of quarks), produced by radioactive and scattering processes, such as photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles.

Backscatter

backscatteringback-scatteredback-scattered electron
Coherent backscattering, an enhancement of backscattering that occurs when coherent radiation is multiply scattered by a random medium, is usually attributed to weak localization.
It is a diffuse reflection due to scattering, as opposed to specular reflection as from a mirror.

Coherent backscattering

Coherent backscattering, an enhancement of backscattering that occurs when coherent radiation is multiply scattered by a random medium, is usually attributed to weak localization.
In physics, coherent backscattering is observed when coherent radiation (such as a laser beam) propagates through a medium which has a large number of scattering centers (such as milk or a thick cloud) of size comparable to the wavelength of the radiation.

Radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory for photon transport in biological tissue

diffusion theoryradiative transfer equation
Multiple scattering can thus often be modeled well with diffusion theory.
Briefly, the RTE states that a beam of light loses energy through divergence and extinction (including both absorption and scattering away from the beam) and gains energy from light sources in the medium and scattering directed towards the beam.

Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Such situations are encountered in radar scattering as well, where the targets tend to be macroscopic objects such as people or aircraft.
When these come into contact with an object they are usually reflected or scattered in many directions.

Inelastic scattering

inelasticinelastic electron scattering
Scattering also includes the interaction of billiard balls on a table, the Rutherford scattering (or angle change) of alpha particles by gold nuclei, the Bragg scattering (or diffraction) of electrons and X-rays by a cluster of atoms, and the inelastic scattering of a fission fragment as it traverses a thin foil.
In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).

Elastic scattering

elasticelastically scatteredelastically scattered electrons
Spectral absorption, the selective absorption of certain colors, determines the color of most objects with some modification by elastic scattering.
Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

Raman scattering

stimulated Raman scatteringRamanRaman Effect
Inelastic scattering includes Brillouin scattering, Raman scattering, inelastic X-ray scattering and Compton scattering.
When photons are scattered by a material, most of them are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such that the scattered photons have the same energy (frequency and wavelength) as the incident photons but different direction.

Mie scattering

Mieelectromagnetic plane wave scatteringLorenz-Mie
Major forms of elastic light scattering (involving negligible energy transfer) are Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering.
The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations (also known as the Lorenz–Mie solution, the Lorenz–Mie–Debye solution or Mie scattering) describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere.

Bragg's law

Bragg angleBragg conditionBragg reflection
Bragg diffraction
In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.

X-ray

x-rayssoft x-rayx rays
Inelastic scattering includes Brillouin scattering, Raman scattering, inelastic X-ray scattering and Compton scattering.
Hard X-rays can traverse relatively thick objects without being much absorbed or scattered.

Small-angle scattering

small angle scattering
Small-angle scattering
Small-angle scattering (SAS) is a scattering technique based on deflection of collimated radiation away from the straight trajectory after it interacts with structures that are much larger than the wavelength of the radiation.

Rutherford scattering

alpha particle scatteringalpha scatteringCoulomb scattering
Scattering also includes the interaction of billiard balls on a table, the Rutherford scattering (or angle change) of alpha particles by gold nuclei, the Bragg scattering (or diffraction) of electrons and X-rays by a cluster of atoms, and the inelastic scattering of a fission fragment as it traverses a thin foil.
Then the deflection angle

Photon diffusion

light diffusiondiffusediffused
Photon diffusion
Photon diffusion is a situation where photons travel through a material without being absorbed, but rather undergoing repeated scattering events which change the direction of their path.

Polarization (waves)

polarizationpolarizedpolarized light
The degree of scattering varies as a function of the ratio of the particle diameter to the wavelength of the radiation, along with many other factors including polarization, angle, and coherence.
Mueller matrices are then used to describe the observed polarization effects of the scattering of waves from complex surfaces or ensembles of particles, as shall now be presented.

Mott scattering

Mott cross section
Mott scattering
Mott scattering, also referred to as spin-coupling inelastic Coulomb scattering, is the separation of the two spin states of an electron beam by scattering the beam off the Coulomb field of heavy atoms.

Light scattering by particles

scatteringLight scatteringscattered
Light scattering by particles
Maxwell's equations are the basis of theoretical and computational methods describing light scattering, but since exact solutions to Maxwell's equations are only known for selected geometries (such as spherical particle), light scattering by particles is a branch of computational electromagnetics dealing with electromagnetic radiation scattering and absorption by particles.

Scattering amplitude

scattering amplitudesamplitudespartial wave expansion
Scattering amplitude
In quantum physics, the scattering amplitude is the probability amplitude of the outgoing spherical wave relative to the incoming plane wave in a stationary-state scattering process.

Wolf effect

coherence effects
Wolf effect
The phenomenon occurs in several closely related phenomena in radiation physics, with analogous effects occurring in the scattering of light.

Tyndall effect

aqueous flareTyndall scatteringTyndall
Tyndall effect
Under the Tyndall effect, the longer wavelengths are more transmitted while the shorter wavelengths are more diffusely reflected via scattering.

Brillouin scattering

BrillouinStimulated Brillouin scatteringBrillouin backscattering
Inelastic scattering includes Brillouin scattering, Raman scattering, inelastic X-ray scattering and Compton scattering.
Scattering

Espresso crema effect

Espresso crema effect
Increases in porosity can increase light refraction, diffuse reflection and scattering, resulting in a brightening of the material's surface.