Schizoid personality disorder

schizoidschizoid personalitySchizoidsde-personalisedindifferenceschizoid character typeSchizoid personality disorder subtypesschizoid withdrawal
Schizoid personality disorder (, often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment and apathy.wikipedia
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Schizotypal personality disorder

schizotypalschizotypal disorderschizotypal personality
The cause of SPD is uncertain, but there is some evidence of links and shared genetic risk between SPD, other cluster A personality disorders (such as schizotypal personality disorder) and schizophrenia. Sometimes, a person with SPD may meet criteria for an additional personality disorder; when this happens, it is most often avoidant, schizotypal or paranoid PD. Alexithymia (the inability to identify and describe emotions) is often present in SPD. The symptoms of SPD mirror the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as anhedonia, blunted affect and low energy, and SPD is thought to be part of the "schizophrenic spectrum" of disorders, which also includes the schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders, and may benefit from the medications indicated for schizophrenia. In a 2012 study of a sample of 54 young adults with Asperger syndrome, it was found that 26% of them also met criteria for SPD, the highest comorbidity out of any personality disorder in the sample (the other comorbidities were 19% for obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, 13% for avoidant personality disorder and one female with schizotypal personality disorder).
The personality disorders that co-occur most often with schizotypal personality disorder are schizoid, paranoid, avoidant, and borderline.

Harry Guntrip

GuntripGuntrip, Harry
According to Guntrip, Klein and others, people with SPD may possess a hidden sense of superiority and lack dependence on other people's opinions.
He viewed the schizoid sense of emptiness as reflecting the withdrawal of energy from the real world into a world of internal object relations.

Asociality

asocialasocial behaviorlack of interest in social relationships
Schizoid personality disorder (, often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment and apathy.
Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, and apathy.

Glossary of psychiatry

Flight of ideaslogocloniaterm used in psychiatry
It also may be seen in severe depressive states and schizoid personality disorder.

Sula Wolff

To Sula Wolff, who did extensive research and clinical work with children and teenagers with schizoid symptoms, "schizoid personality has a constitutional, probably genetic, basis."
Her work focused principally on a group of socially withdrawn, eccentric and schizoid children which she followed for over 20 years.

Apathy

apatheticindifferenceindifferent
Schizoid personality disorder (, often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment and apathy.
It is also known to be a distinct psychiatric syndrome that is associated with many conditions, some of which are: CADASIL syndrome, depression, Alzheimer's disease, Chagas disease, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, dementia (and dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia), Korsakoff's syndrome, excessive vitamin D, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, general fatigue, Huntington's disease, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), brain damage, schizophrenia, schizoid personality disorder, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, and others.

Schizoid avoidant behavior

schizoid-avoidant behaviorSchizoid/avoidant behavior
The relationship between schizoid personality disorder (SPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) has been a subject of controversy for decades.

Depersonalization

depersonalisationdepersonalizeddepersonalised
These feelings may lead to depression or depersonalisation.
It is also a prominent symptom in some other non-dissociative disorders, such as anxiety disorders, clinical depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoid personality disorder, hypothyroidism or endocrine disorders, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, migraines, and sleep deprivation; it can also be a symptom of some types of neurological seizure.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
In general, prenatal caloric malnutrition, premature birth and a low birth weight are risk factors for being afflicted by mental disorders and may contribute to the development of schizoid personality disorder as well.
A number of different personality disorders are listed, including those sometimes classed as "eccentric", such as paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders; types that have described as "dramatic" or "emotional", such as antisocial, borderline, histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders; and those sometimes classed as fear-related, such as anxious-avoidant, dependent, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

Paranoid personality disorder

paranoidparanoiaparanoid constitution
Sometimes, a person with SPD may meet criteria for an additional personality disorder; when this happens, it is most often avoidant, schizotypal or paranoid PD. Alexithymia (the inability to identify and describe emotions) is often present in SPD. The symptoms of SPD mirror the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as anhedonia, blunted affect and low energy, and SPD is thought to be part of the "schizophrenic spectrum" of disorders, which also includes the schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders, and may benefit from the medications indicated for schizophrenia.
Their reduced capacity for meaningful emotional involvement and the general pattern of isolated withdrawal often lend a quality of schizoid isolation to their life experience.

Narcissistic withdrawal

schizoid withdrawal
A pathological reliance on fantasizing and preoccupation with inner experience is often part of the schizoid withdrawal from the world.
Closely related to narcissistic withdrawal is 'schizoid withdrawal: the escape from too great pressure by abolishing emotional relationships altogether'.

Eugen Bleuler

BleulerPaul Eugen BleulerEugen
Asperger syndrome had traditionally been called "schizoid disorder of childhood", and Eugen Bleuler coined both the terms "autism" and "schizoid" to describe withdrawal to an internal fantasy, against which any influence from outside becomes an intolerable disturbance.
He coined many psychiatric terms, such as "schizophrenia", "schizoid", "autism", depth psychology and what Sigmund Freud called "Bleuler's happily chosen term ambivalence".

Solitude

isolationsocial withdrawalwithdrawal
In contrast, some psychological conditions (such as schizophrenia and schizoid personality disorder) are strongly linked to a tendency to seek solitude.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
The cause of SPD is uncertain, but there is some evidence of links and shared genetic risk between SPD, other cluster A personality disorders (such as schizotypal personality disorder) and schizophrenia. Schizoid personality disorder (, often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment and apathy.
The specific personality disorders are: paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, emotionally unstable (borderline type and impulsive type), histrionic, anankastic, anxious (avoidant) and dependent.

Theodore Millon

Millon
Theodore Millon restricted the term "schizoid" to those personalities who lack the capacity to form social relationships.

Loneliness

lonelydesolationIsolation
Loneliness has also been linked with a schizoid character type in which one may see the world differently and experience social alienation, described as the self in exile.

ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders

ICD-10Chapter VICD-10 ChICD-10 codes (personality disorders)
The Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders of ICD-10 lists schizoid personality disorder under ( F60.1).

Reduced affect display

blunted affectshowed no emotionflat affect
The symptoms of SPD mirror the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as anhedonia, blunted affect and low energy, and SPD is thought to be part of the "schizophrenic spectrum" of disorders, which also includes the schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders, and may benefit from the medications indicated for schizophrenia.
Reduced affect can be symptomatic of autism, schizophrenia, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, depersonalization disorder, schizoid personality disorder or brain damage.

Spectrum disorder

spectrumschizophrenia spectrumpsychotic spectrum
The symptoms of SPD mirror the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as anhedonia, blunted affect and low energy, and SPD is thought to be part of the "schizophrenic spectrum" of disorders, which also includes the schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders, and may benefit from the medications indicated for schizophrenia.
A dimensional concept was proposed by Ernst Kretschmer in 1921 for schizophrenia (schizothymic – schizoid – schizophrenic) and for affective disorders (cyclothymic temperament – cycloid 'psychopathy' – manic-depressive disorder), as well as by Eugen Bleuler in 1922.

Narcissism

narcissisticnarcissistnarcissists
Because the malignant narcissist becomes more involved in this psychological gratification, in the context of the right conditions, the narcissist is apt to develop the antisocial, the paranoid, and the schizoid personality disorders.

Avoidant personality disorder

avoidantavoidance behaviorAvoidance
Sometimes, a person with SPD may meet criteria for an additional personality disorder; when this happens, it is most often avoidant, schizotypal or paranoid PD. Alexithymia (the inability to identify and describe emotions) is often present in SPD. In a 2012 study of a sample of 54 young adults with Asperger syndrome, it was found that 26% of them also met criteria for SPD, the highest comorbidity out of any personality disorder in the sample (the other comorbidities were 19% for obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, 13% for avoidant personality disorder and one female with schizotypal personality disorder).
According to the DSM-5, avoidant personality disorder must be differentiated from similar personality disorders such as dependent, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal.

Autism spectrum

autism spectrum disorderautisticautism spectrum disorders
Several studies have reported an overlap or comorbidity with the autism spectrum disorder Asperger syndrome.

Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

obsessive-compulsive personality disorderobsessive-compulsiveobsessive compulsive personality disorder
In a 2012 study of a sample of 54 young adults with Asperger syndrome, it was found that 26% of them also met criteria for SPD, the highest comorbidity out of any personality disorder in the sample (the other comorbidities were 19% for obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, 13% for avoidant personality disorder and one female with schizotypal personality disorder).

Antisocial personality disorder

sociopathsociopathicantisocial
Another study evaluating personality disorder profiles in substance abusers found that substance abusers who showed schizoid symptoms were more likely to abuse one substance rather than many, in contrast to other personality disorders such as borderline, antisocial or histrionic, which were more likely to abuse many.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
Another study evaluating personality disorder profiles in substance abusers found that substance abusers who showed schizoid symptoms were more likely to abuse one substance rather than many, in contrast to other personality disorders such as borderline, antisocial or histrionic, which were more likely to abuse many.
(In a major 2008 study – see adjacent table – the rate was 73.9 percent.) The Cluster A disorders, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal, are broadly the most common.