Schizophrenia

Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia
My Eyes at the Moment of the Apparitions by German artist August Natterer, who had schizophrenia
Risperidone (trade name Risperdal) is a common atypical antipsychotic medication.
Deaths per million persons due to schizophrenia in 2012.
The term "schizophrenia" was coined by Eugen Bleuler.
A molecule of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic developed in the 1950s
John Nash, an American mathematician and joint recipient of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, who had schizophrenia. His life was the subject of the 1998 book, A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar.

Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

- Schizophrenia

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Hallucination

Perception in the absence of an external stimulus that has the qualities of a real perception.

My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer, a German artist who created many drawings of his hallucinations

Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia.

Mental disorder

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
frameless
Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

In 2019, common mental disorders around the globe include depression, which affects about 264 million, bipolar disorder, which affects about 45 million, dementia, which affects about 50 million, and schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affects about 20 million people.

DSM-5

2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

Changes in the DSM-5 include the reconceptualization of Asperger syndrome from a distinct disorder to an autism spectrum disorder; the elimination of subtypes of schizophrenia; the deletion of the "bereavement exclusion" for depressive disorders; the renaming of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria; the inclusion of binge eating disorder as a discrete eating disorder; the renaming and reconceptualization of paraphilias, now called paraphilic disorders; the removal of the five-axis system; and the splitting of disorders not otherwise specified into other specified disorders and unspecified disorders.

Apathy

Lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something.

A depiction of Rama in the Ramayana. Worried about his wife Sita, he is consoled by his brother Lakshmana.

Pathological apathy, characterized by extreme forms of apathy, is now known to occur in many different brain disorders, including neurodegenerative conditions often associated with dementia such as Alzheimer's disease, and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

Paranoia

Instinct or thought process that is believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.

At least 50% of the diagnosed cases of schizophrenia experience delusions of reference and delusions of persecution.

Solitude

State of seclusion or isolation, i.e., lack of contact with people.

Solitude by Frederic Leighton
Breslover Hasid practicing hitbodedut.
Howard Pyle's 19th century illustration of a marooned pirate.

Some psychological conditions (such as schizophrenia and schizoid personality disorder) are strongly linked to a tendency to seek solitude.

Mood disorder

Affective disorder, is any of a group of conditions of mental and behavioral disorder where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.

A depressive man standing by a country pond in the pouring rain

If a mood disorder and schizophrenia are both present in an individual, this is known as schizoaffective disorder.

Thought disorder

Any disturbance in cognition that adversely affects language and thought content, and thereby communication.

An embroidered cloth produced by a person with schizophrenia, showing the nonsensical associations between words and ideas characteristic of thought disorder
A depiction of an individual with bipolar disorder, illustrating the conflicting thoughts going through their mind in manic and depressive states.

A variety of thought disorders were said to be characteristic of people with schizophrenia.

Reduced affect display

Condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual.

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Reduced affect can be symptomatic of autism, schizophrenia, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, depersonalization disorder, schizoid personality disorder or brain damage.

Antipsychotic

Olanzapine, an example of a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic
Chlorpromazine
Haloperidol
Quetiapine
Advertisement for Thorazine (chlorpromazine) from the 1950s, reflecting the perceptions of psychosis, including the now-discredited perception of a tendency towards violence, from the time when antipsychotics were discovered

Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics, are a class of psychotropic medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia but also in a range of other psychotic disorders.