Schizophrenia

schizophrenicschizophrenicspositive symptomsnegative symptomparanoid schizophrenicpositive symptommental illnessparanoid schizophreniaschizophrenic disorderschizophrenic episode
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior, strange speech and a decreased ability to understand reality.wikipedia
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Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior, strange speech and a decreased ability to understand reality.
Common mental disorders include depression, which affects about 400 million, dementia which affects about 35 million, and schizophrenia, which affects about 21 million people globally.

Clozapine

clonazepamlozapinenorclozapine
In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics, clozapine may be tried.
It is mainly used for schizophrenia that does not improve following the use of other antipsychotic medications.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
This is the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).
Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and substance abuse—including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines—are risk factors.

Self-disorder

self-disordersanomalous self-experienceDistortions of self-experience
Distortions of self-experience such as feeling as if one's thoughts or feelings are not really one's own to believing thoughts are being inserted into one's mind, sometimes termed passivity phenomena, are also common.
Disturbances in the sense of minimal self, as measured by the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), aggregate in the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, to include schizotypal personality disorder, and distinguish them from other conditions such as psychotic bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

Delusion

delusionsdelusionalparanoid delusions
Other symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that do not exist, reduced social engagement and emotional expression and lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech.
They have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both general physical and mental) and are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression.

Primary polydipsia

psychogenic polydipsiapsychogenic primary polydipsiaPsychosis-intermittent hyponatremia-polydipsia (PIP) syndrome
Psychogenic polydipsia, or excessive fluid intake in the absence of physiological reasons to drink, is relatively common in people with schizophrenia.
This includes psychogenic polydipsia (PPD – not to be confused with postpartum depression), which is caused by psychiatric disorders, often schizophrenia, and often accompanied by the sensation of dry mouth.

Avolition

avolitivedecreased motivationlack of motivation
Other symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that do not exist, reduced social engagement and emotional expression and lack of motivation. They commonly include flat expressions or little emotion, poverty of speech, inability to experience pleasure, lack of desire to form relationships, and lack of motivation.
In 2006, avolition was identified as a negative symptom of schizophrenia by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and has been observed in patients with bipolar disorder as well as resulting from trauma.

Catatonia

catatoniccatatonic statecatatonic schizophrenia
In one uncommon subtype, the person may be largely mute, remain motionless in bizarre postures, or exhibit purposeless agitation, all signs of catatonia.
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), catatonia is not recognized as a separate disorder, but is associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia (catatonic type), bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders, narcolepsy, as well as drug abuse or overdose (or both).

Hallucination

hallucinationshallucinatehallucinating
People with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech.
Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia.

Social cognition

social cognitiveand social cognitionschemas
Impairment in social cognition is associated with schizophrenia, as are symptoms of paranoia.
The term social cognition has been used in multiple areas in psychology and cognitive neuroscience, most often to refer to various social abilities disrupted in autism, schizophrenia and other disorders.

Thought insertion

believing thoughts are being inserted into one's mindDelusion of thought insertioninserted thoughts
Distortions of self-experience such as feeling as if one's thoughts or feelings are not really one's own to believing thoughts are being inserted into one's mind, sometimes termed passivity phenomena, are also common.
However, thought insertion is most commonly associated with schizophrenia.

Thought disorder

formal thought disorderabnormal thinkingconfused
Other symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that do not exist, reduced social engagement and emotional expression and lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech.
Eugen Bleuler, who named schizophrenia, held that thought disorder was its defining characteristic.

Reduced affect display

blunted affectshowed no emotionflat affect
They commonly include flat expressions or little emotion, poverty of speech, inability to experience pleasure, lack of desire to form relationships, and lack of motivation.
Reduced affect can be symptomatic of autism, schizophrenia, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, depersonalization disorder, schizoid personality disorder or brain damage.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
There is a genetic relation between the common variants which cause schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, an inverse genetic correlation with intelligence and no genetic correlation with immune disorders.
Other conditions that may present similarly include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder as well as a number of medical conditions.

Dissociative identity disorder

multiple personality disordermultiple personalitiessplit personality
Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or dissociative identity disorder, conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.
Further, data supports a high level of psychotic symptoms in individuals with DID, and that both individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and those diagnosed with DID have histories of trauma.

Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia

dopamine hypothesisdopamine hypothesis of psychosisrole of dopamine in schizophrenia
One of the most common is the dopamine hypothesis, which attributes psychosis to the mind's faulty interpretation of the misfiring of dopaminergic neurons.
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia or the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis is a model that attributes symptoms of schizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction.

Reelin

RELNpsychotropic medication itself affects reelin expressionReelin protein
Maternal stress has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, possibly in association with reelin.
The expression of the protein has been found to be significantly lower in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder, but the cause of this observation remains uncertain as studies show that psychotropic medication itself affects reelin expression.

Homelessness

homelesshomeless peoplebag lady
Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness, are common.
Living with a mental disorder, where mental health services are unavailable or difficult to access. A United States federal survey done in 2005 indicated that at least one-third of homeless men and women have serious psychiatric disorders or problems. Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia are the top two common mental disabilities among the U.S. homeless. Personality disorders are also very prevalent, especially Cluster A.

1q21.1 deletion syndrome

1q211q21.1
Around 5% of cases of schizophrenia are understood to be at least partially attributable to rare copy number variants (CNVs), including 22q11, 1q21 and 16p11.
Neurological-psychiatric problems: Autism; schizophrenia; epilepsy; learning problems; cognitive disabilities — mild to moderate; developmental delay — mild to moderate (milestones like sitting, standing and walking; come at a later period in childhood); children show an ataxic gait and fall down a lot

Alogia

poverty of speechreduced spontaneous speech
They commonly include flat expressions or little emotion, poverty of speech, inability to experience pleasure, lack of desire to form relationships, and lack of motivation.
As a symptom, it is commonly seen in patients suffering from schizophrenia, and is considered a negative symptom.

Word salad

The last may range from loss of train of thought, to sentences only loosely connected in meaning, to speech that is not understandable known as word salad.
It appears in people with dementia and schizophrenia, as well as after anoxic brain injury.

Schizoaffective disorder

schizoaffectiveschizo-affective disorderschizoaffective disorders
Schizoaffective disorder is better defined to demarcate it more cleanly from schizophrenia.
The diagnosis is made when the person has features of both schizophrenia (usually psychosis) and a mood disorder—either bipolar disorder or depression—but does not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or a mood disorder separately.

DSM-5

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersmental health disordersDSM-V
In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released the fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5).
Notable changes in the DSM-5 include the reconceptualization of Asperger syndrome from a distinct disorder to an autism spectrum disorder; the elimination of subtypes of schizophrenia; the deletion of the "bereavement exclusion" for depressive disorders; the renaming of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria, along with a revised treatment plan; the inclusion of binge eating disorder as a discrete eating disorder; the renaming and reconceptualization of paraphilias to paraphilic disorders; the removal of the axis system; and the splitting of disorders not otherwise specified into other specified disorders and unspecified disorders.

Paranoid schizophrenia

paranoid schizophrenicparanoidparanoid schizophrenics
Subtype classifications – such as catatonic and paranoid schizophrenia – are removed. These were retained in previous revisions largely for reasons of tradition, but had subsequently proved to be of little worth.
Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia.

Schizophreniform disorder

schizophreniform
If signs of disturbance are present for more than a month but less than six months, the diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder is applied.
Schizophreniform disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of the time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.