A report on Scholasticism

14th-century image of a university lecture

Medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

- Scholasticism
14th-century image of a university lecture

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17th-century portrait of Bonaventure by French painter and friar Claude François

Bonaventure

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17th-century portrait of Bonaventure by French painter and friar Claude François
Bonaventure's coat of arms of Cardinal Bishop of Albano
Legenda maior, 1477
St. Bonaventure receives the envoys of the Byzantine Emperor at the Second Council of Lyon.

Bonaventure (Bonaventura ; Bonaventura de Balneoregio; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian Catholic Franciscan, bishop, cardinal, scholastic theologian and philosopher.

Page from an incunable edition of part II (Peter Schöffer, Mainz 1471)

Summa Theologica

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Page from an incunable edition of part II (Peter Schöffer, Mainz 1471)
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Graphical depiction of the cyclic structure of the work
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The Summa Theologiae or Summa Theologica, often referred to simply as the Summa, is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), a scholastic theologian and Doctor of the Church.

Roger Bacon

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Medieval English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.

Medieval English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.

The memorial to Roger Bacon at St Mary Major, Ilchester
A diorama of Bacon presenting one of his works to the chancellors of Paris University
A 19th-century engraving of Bacon observing the stars at Oxford
Ernest Board's portrayal of Bacon in his observatory at Merton College
A manuscript illustration of Bacon presenting one of his works to the chancellor of the University of Paris
Optic studies by Bacon
Bacon's diagram of light being refracted by a spherical container of water
"Roger Bacon discovers gunpowder", "whereby Guy Fawkes was made possible", an image from Bill Nye's Comic History of England
Friar Bacon in his study
A 19th-century etching of Bacon conducting an alchemical experiment
A portrait of Roger Bacon from a 15th-century edition of De Retardatione
The first page of the letter from Bacon to Clement IV introducing his Opus Tertium
A woodcut from Robert Greene's play displaying the brazen head pronouncing "Time is. Time was. Time is past."
"Friar Bacon's Study" in Oxford. By the late 18th century this study on Folly Bridge had become a place of pilgrimage for scientists, but the building was pulled down in 1779 to allow for road widening.
The Westgate plaque at Oxford
William Blake's visionary head of "Friar Bacon"
alt=|Spine of a 1750 edition of Opus majus
alt=|Title page of 1750 edition of Opus majus
alt=|First page of 1750 edition of Opus majus

21st century re-evaluations emphasise that Bacon was essentially a medieval thinker, with much of his "experimental" knowledge obtained from books in the scholastic tradition.

The Apparition of the Virgin to Saint Albert the Great by Vicente Salvador Gomez

Albertus Magnus

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Albertus Magnus (c.

Albertus Magnus (c.

The Apparition of the Virgin to Saint Albert the Great by Vicente Salvador Gomez
The Apparition of the Virgin to Saint Albert the Great by Vicente Salvador Gomez
Bust of Albertus Magnus by Vincenzo Onofri, c. 1493
Roman sarcophagus containing the relics of Albertus Magnus in the crypt of St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany
Albertus Magnus monument at the University of Cologne
Saint Albertus Magnus, a fresco by Tommaso da Modena (1352), Church of San Nicolò, Treviso, Italy
De animalibus (c. 1450–1500, cod. fiesolano 67, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana)
Albertus Magnus, Chimistes Celebres, Liebig's Extract of Meat Company Trading Card, 1929
The tympanum and archivolts of Strasbourg Cathedral, with iconography inspired by Albertus Magnus
Painting by Joos (Justus) van Gent, Urbino, c. 1475
University of Santo Tomas in the Philippines
De meteoris, 1488

Albert's activity, however, was more philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism).

Doctor Alexander of (H)ales by George Glover. Line engraving, mid 17th century.

Alexander of Hales

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Doctor Alexander of (H)ales by George Glover. Line engraving, mid 17th century.
Summa universae theologiae

Alexander of Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius ; c. 1185 – 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a Franciscan friar, theologian and philosopher important in the development of scholasticism.

Francisco Suárez

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Monument in Granada, Spain, where he was born
Operis de religione (1625).
Monument of Francisco Suárez in Granada

Francisco Suárez, (5 January 1548 – 25 September 1617) was a Spanish Jesuit priest, philosopher and theologian, one of the leading figures of the School of Salamanca movement, and generally regarded among the greatest scholastics after Thomas Aquinas.

An early 14th-century portrait of Grosseteste

Robert Grosseteste

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An early 14th-century portrait of Grosseteste
An image of Grosseteste from a late-14th-century illuminated manuscript.
A 19th-century portrait of Robert Grosseteste in stained glass
Grosseteste's Tomb and Chapel in Lincoln Cathedral
Optic studies from Roger Bacon's De multiplicatione specierum. The diagram shows light being refracted by a spherical glass container full of water.

Robert Grosseteste (Robertus Grosseteste; c. 1168 – 8 or 9 October 1253), also known as Robert Greathead or Robert of Lincoln, was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.

A disputation between Jewish and Christian scholars (1483)

Disputation

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A disputation between Jewish and Christian scholars (1483)
c. 1208. This 15th-century painting by Pedro Berruguete depicts the legend of Saint Dominic and his Albigensian disputant tossing their books into a fire. According to the legend, Saint Dominic's books miraculously leapt out of the fire.

In the scholastic system of education of the Middle Ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in sciences.

Peter Lombard at work

Peter Lombard

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Peter Lombard at work
Sententiae, 1280 circa, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence

Peter Lombard (also Peter the Lombard, Pierre Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; c. undefined 1096, Novara – 21/22 July 1160, Paris), was a scholastic theologian, Bishop of Paris, and author of Four Books of Sentences which became the standard textbook of theology, for which he earned the accolade Magister Sententiarum.

Portrait of Luis de Molina

Luis de Molina

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Portrait of Luis de Molina
De Hispanorum primogeniorum origine ac natura, 1588
De iustitia et iure, 1733

Luis de Molina (29 September 1535 – 12 October 1600) was a Spanish Jesuit priest and scholastic, a staunch defender of free will in the controversy over human liberty and God's grace.