A report on Scholasticism

14th-century image of a university lecture

Medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

- Scholasticism
14th-century image of a university lecture

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Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274)

Thomism

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Philosophical and theological school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas , the Dominican philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.

Philosophical and theological school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas , the Dominican philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.

Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274)
Summa Theologiæ, Pars secunda, prima pars. (copy by Peter Schöffer, 1471)
Triumph of St Thomas Aquinas, Benozzo Gozzoli,1471. Louvre, Paris

Aquinas shifted Scholasticism away from neoplatonism and towards Aristotle.

Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas

Duns Scotus

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John Duns Scotus (c.

John Duns Scotus (c.

Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas
Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas
Plaque commemorating Duns Scotus in the University Church, Oxford
Portrait of Duns Scotus
Colophon from the edition of Scotus's Sentences commentary edited by Thomas Penketh (died 1487) and Bartolomeo Bellati (died 1479), printed by Johannes de Colonia and Johannes Manthen, Venice in 1477. It reads Explicit Scriptum super Primum Sententiarum: editum a fratre Johanne Duns: ordinis fratrum minorum Printed versions of scholastic manuscripts became popular in the late fifteenth century.

For some today, Scotus is one of the most important Franciscan theologians and the founder of Scotism, a special form of Scholasticism.

Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy

Latin Church

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Largest particular church within the Catholic Church, whose members constitute the vast majority of the 1.3 billion Christians in communion with the Pope in Rome.

Largest particular church within the Catholic Church, whose members constitute the vast majority of the 1.3 billion Christians in communion with the Pope in Rome.

Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy
St. Augustine by Peter Paul Rubens, 1636-1638
Portrait of Augustine by Philippe de Champaigne, 17th century
Saint Augustine of Hippo by Gerard Seghers (attributed)
14th-century image of a university lecture
During the 13th century, Saint Thomas Aquinas sought to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Augustinian theology, employing both reason and faith in the study of metaphysics, moral philosophy, and religion. While Aquinas accepted the existence of God on faith, he offered five proofs of God's existence to support such a belief.
Detail from Valle Romita Polyptych by Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1400) showing Thomas Aquinas
Detail from Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas over Averroes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1420–97)
Impression of purgatory by Peter Paul Rubens
Image of a fiery purgatory by Ludovico Carracci
Dante gazes at purgatory (shown as a mountain) in this 16th-century painting.
The Penitent Magdalene by Guido Reni
Michelangelo's painting of the sin of Adam and Eve from the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Inmaculada Concepción by Juan Antonio de Frías y Escalante
John Duns Scotus was one of the Scholastic philosophers that argued most for the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
The Assumption of Mary, Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1626
Titian's Assumption (1516–1518)
Icon of the Dormition by Theophan the Greek, 1392
The Ancient of Days, watercolor etching from 1794 by William Blake
The Ancient of Days, a 14th-century fresco from Ubisi, Georgia

Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, The 13th and early 14th centuries are generally seen as the high period of scholasticism.

Boethius teaching his students
(initial in a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy)

Boethius

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Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, historian and philosopher of the early 6th century.

Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, historian and philosopher of the early 6th century.

Boethius teaching his students
(initial in a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy)
Boethius imprisoned, from a 1385 manuscript of the Consolation.
Gravestone of Boethius, 6th century, Pavia, Musei Civici.
Narius Manilas Boethius, the father of Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius.
Lady Philosophy and Boethius from the Consolation, (Ghent, 1485)
Boethius, Arithmetica Geometrica Musica (1492 first printed edition, from Hans Adler Collection)
The Tomb of Boethius in San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, Pavia.
Dialectica, 1547

Lorenzo Valla described Boethius as the last of the Romans and the first of the scholastic philosophers.

Statue of Ibn Rushd in Córdoba, Spain

Averroes

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An

An

Statue of Ibn Rushd in Córdoba, Spain
Averroes in a 14th-century painting by Andrea di Bonaiuto
Averroes served various official positions in the Almohad Caliphate, whose territories are depicted in this map.
Imaginary debate between Averroes and third-century philosopher Porphyry. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century
An Arabic illustration of Aristotle teaching a student, c. 1220. Aristotle's works are the subject of extensive commentaries by Averroes.
Title page from a Latin edition of Colliget, Averroes's main work in medicine
The Long Commentary on Aristotle's On the Soul, French Manuscript, third quarter of the 13th century
6th-century Byzantine depiction of Galen (top centre) among other noted physicians
The Triumph of Saint Thomas Aquinas over Averroes by Benozzo Gozzoli, depicting Aquinas (top center), a major Averroes critic, "triumphing" over Averroes (bottom), depicted at the feet of Aquinas
Averroes, detail of the fresco The School of Athens by Raphael

This explanation was used up to the seventeenth century by the European Scholastics to account for Galileo's observations of spots on the moon's surface, until the Scholastics such as Antoine Goudin in 1668 conceded that the observation was more likely caused by mountains on the moon.

A diagram of the Trinity

Trinity

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, from trinus 'threefold') defines one God existing in three coequal, coeternal, consubstantial divine persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ) and God the Holy Spirit, three distinct persons sharing one homoousion (essence).

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, from trinus 'threefold') defines one God existing in three coequal, coeternal, consubstantial divine persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ) and God the Holy Spirit, three distinct persons sharing one homoousion (essence).

A diagram of the Trinity
Russian icon of the Old Testament Trinity by Andrei Rublev, between 1408 and 1425
God in the person of the Son confronts Adam and Eve, by Master Bertram (d. c. 1415)
Detail of the earliest known artwork of the Trinity, the Dogmatic or Trinity Sarcophagus, c. undefined 350 (Vatican Museums): Three similar figures, representing the Trinity, are involved in the creation of Eve, whose much smaller figure is cut off at lower right; to her right, Adam lies on the ground
The Adoration of the Trinity by Albrecht Dürer (1511): from top to bottom: Holy Spirit (dove), God the Father and the crucified Christ
The "Heavenly Trinity" joined to the "Earthly Trinity" through the Incarnation of the Son – The Heavenly and Earthly Trinities by Murillo (c. 1677).
The Glory of Saint Nicholas, by António Manuel da Fonseca. Nicholas of Myra, a participant in the First Council of Nicaea, achieves the beatific vision in the shape of the Holy Trinity.
The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 15th century
A depiction of the Council of Nicaea in AD 325, at which the Deity of Christ was declared orthodox and Arianism condemned
A Greek fresco of Athanasius of Alexandria, the chief architect of the Nicene Creed, formulated at Nicaea.
Depiction of Trinity from Saint Denis Basilica in Paris (12th century)
Father, The Holy Spirit, and Christ Crucified, depicted in a Welsh manuscript. {{circa|1390–1400}}
The Holy Trinity in an angelic glory over a landscape, by Lucas Cranach the Elder (d. 1553)
God the Father (top), and the Holy Spirit (represented by a dove) depicted above Jesus. Painting by Francesco Albani (d. 1660)
God the Father (top), the Holy Spirit (a dove), and child Jesus, painting by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (d. 1682)
Pope Clement I prays to the Trinity, in a typical post-Renaissance depiction by Gianbattista Tiepolo (d. 1770)
Atypical depiction. The Son is identified by a lamb, the Father an Eye of Providence, and the Spirit a dove, painting by Fridolin Leiber (d. 1912)
13th-century depiction of the Trinity from a Roman de la Rose manuscript

In the Middle Ages, the theory was systematically taught by the Schoolmen such as Bonaventure.

Larkmead School in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England

School

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Educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers.

Educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers.

Larkmead School in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England
Kendriya Vidyalaya, Rohtak, India
Kallavesi High School, a secondary school building in Kuopio, Finland
First primary school building in Badagry, Nigeria, built in 1845
Plato's academy, mosaic from Pompeii
One-room school in 1935, Alabama
Mental Calculations. In the school of S.Rachinsky by Nikolay Bogdanov-Belsky. Russia, 1895.
A madrasah in the Gambia
Loyola School, Chennai, India – run by the Catholic Diocese of Madras. Christian missionaries played a pivotal role in establishing modern schools in India.
A school building in Kannur, India
Albert Bettannier's 1887 painting La Tache noire depicts a child being taught about the "lost" province of Alsace-Lorraine in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War – an example of how European schools were often used in order to inoculate Nationalism in their pupils.
Chemistry lesson at a German Gymnasium, Bonn, 1988
A school entrance building in Australia
To curtail violence, some schools have added CCTV surveillance cameras. This is especially common in schools with gang activity or violence.
ESL online learning

In Europe, universities emerged during the 12th century; here, scholasticism was an important tool, and the academicians were called schoolmen.

The jewelled cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, c. 870, a Carolingian Gospel book.

Early Middle Ages

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Typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century.

Typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century.

The jewelled cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, c. 870, a Carolingian Gospel book.
Dark Ages Cold Period
Die Hunnen im Kampf mit den Alanen, (The Huns in battle with the Alans by Johann Nepomuk Geiger, 1873). The Alans, an Iranian people who lived north and east of the Black Sea, functioned as Europe's first line of defence against the Asiatic Huns. They were dislocated and settled throughout the Roman Empire
A paten from the Treasure of Gourdon, found at Gourdon, Saône-et-Loire, France.
Theodora, Justinian's wife, and her retinue
Restored Walls of Constantinople
Christ crowning Constantine VII
ivory plaque, ca. 945
Europe around 650
The Sutton Hoo helmet, an Anglo-Saxon helmet from the early 7th century
The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
The Gokstad ship, a 9th-century Viking longship, excavated in 1882. Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway
Ceramic icon of St Theodore from around 900, found in Preslav, Bulgarian capital from 893 to 972
St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim, 1010s. Ottonian architecture draws its inspiration from Carolingian and Byzantine architecture.
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad preaching

The teaching of dialectic (a discipline that corresponds to today's logic) was responsible for the increase in the interest in speculative inquiry; from this interest would follow the rise of the Scholastic tradition of Christian philosophy.

Boys going to school. Bolognese manuscript of the Decretum Gratiani, 14th century

Monastic school

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Monastic schools (Scholae monasticae) were, along with cathedral schools, the most important institutions of higher learning in the Latin West from the early Middle Ages until the 12th century.

Monastic schools (Scholae monasticae) were, along with cathedral schools, the most important institutions of higher learning in the Latin West from the early Middle Ages until the 12th century.

Boys going to school. Bolognese manuscript of the Decretum Gratiani, 14th century

Some monastic figures such as Bernard of Clairvaux considered the search for knowledge using the techniques of scholasticism to be a challenge to the monastic ideal of simplicity.

Recovery of Aristotle

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The "Recovery of Aristotle" (or Rediscovery) refers to the copying and translating of most of Aristotle's tractates from Greek or Arabic text into Latin, during the Middle Ages, of the Latin West.

The "Recovery of Aristotle" (or Rediscovery) refers to the copying and translating of most of Aristotle's tractates from Greek or Arabic text into Latin, during the Middle Ages, of the Latin West.

The recovery of Aristotle's texts precipitated the scholastic movement of medieval philosophy, leading to Aristotelianism.