School voucher

school voucherseducation vouchervouchersvouchereducational voucherseducation vouchersvoucher programsprivate school vouchersschool voucher programschool-voucher
A school voucher, also called an education voucher, in a voucher system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by the student or the student's parents.wikipedia
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Milton Friedman

FriedmanFriedman, MiltonMilton
Milton Friedman argued for the modern concept of vouchers in the 1950s, stating that competition would improve schools, cost less and yield superior educational outcomes.
In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military, freely floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax and school vouchers and opposed the war on drugs.

School choice

Open enrollmenteducational choicechoice
and asserted that permitting parents and students to use vouchers to choose their schools would expand freedom of choice and produce more well-educated students.
In other cases, a similar subsidy may be provided by the state through a school voucher program.

Segregation academy

segregation academieswave of private schoolsacademies
The vouchers, then known as tuition grants, in many cases, were only good at new, private, segregated schools, known as segregation academies.
In 1956 the Pearsall Plan established a system of local control, freedom of choice, and school vouchers.

Rose Friedman

RoseRose Director FriedmanRose D. Friedman
Friedman's reasoning in favor of vouchers gained additional attention in 1980 with the broadcast of his ten part television series Free to Choose and the publication of its companion book of the same name (co-written with his wife Rose Friedman, who was also an economist).
Together they founded EdChoice (formerly the Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation), with the aim of promoting the use of school vouchers and freedom of choice in education.

Charter school

chartercharter schoolspublic charter school
These are publicly funded by school vouchers and can be run by not-for-profits as well as for-profit companies.

Indiana Choice Scholarships

The largest school voucher program in the United States is Indiana's Indiana Choice Scholarships program.
It is the largest school voucher program in the U.S.

Milwaukee Public Schools

Milwaukee Board of School DirectorsMilwaukee School BoardMilwaukee Public School system
In 1990, the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin's public schools were the first to offer vouchers and has nearly 15,000 students using vouchers as of 2011.
In 1990, Milwaukee became the first community in the United States to adopt a school voucher program.

Private school

Privateprivate schoolsprivate high school
Those vouchers were worth about US $190 in 1998, and data shows that matriculation fees and other monthly expenses incurred by voucher students attending private schools averaged about US $340 in 1998, so a majority of voucher recipients supplemented the voucher with personal funds.
Sweden is internationally known for this innovative school voucher model that provides Swedish pupils with the opportunity to choose the school they prefer.

Cream skimming

Public schools forced to compete made greater test-score gains than schools not faced with such competition, and that the so-called effect of cream skimming did not exist in any of the voucher districts examined.
The term has been used in relation to the concept of school vouchers in which it is claimed that the vouchers could be used by parents of "better" students (i.e., students with above average grades who are not disciplinary risks) to move them out of lower performing or substandard state schools and into less-crowded private ones, leaving the "worse" students (i.e., students with learning disabilities or who are troublemakers) behind in the state schools, making the situation worse.

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris

The latter issue was struck down by the Supreme Court case Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, which upheld Ohio's voucher plan in a 5-4 ruling.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 536 U.S. 639 (2002), was a 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court that upheld an Ohio program that used school vouchers.


SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
In Sweden, a system of school vouchers (called skolpeng) was introduced in 1992 at primary and secondary school level, enabling free choice among publicly run schools and privately run friskolor ("free schools").
The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

St. Anthony High School (Milwaukee)

St. Anthony High SchoolSt. Anthony Catholic School
St. Anthony Catholic School, located on Milwaukee's south side, boasts 966 voucher students, meaning that it very likely receives more public money for general school support of a parochial elementary or high school than any before it in American history.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
The latter issue was struck down by the Supreme Court case Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, which upheld Ohio's voucher plan in a 5-4 ruling.
It struck down single-sex state schools as a violation of equal protection (United States v. Virginia), laws against sodomy as violations of substantive due process (Lawrence v. Texas), and the line item veto (Clinton v. New York), but upheld school vouchers (Zelman v. Simmons-Harris) and reaffirmed Roe's restrictions on abortion laws (Planned Parenthood v. Casey).

Manhattan Institute for Policy Research

Manhattan InstituteThe Manhattan InstituteE21: Economic Policies for the 21st Century
This argument is supported by studies such as "When Schools Compete: The Effects of Vouchers on Florida Public School Achievement" (Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, 2003), which concluded that public schools located near private schools that were eligible to accept voucher students made significantly more improvements than did similar schools not located near eligible private schools.
Former senior fellow Jay P. Greene's research on school choice was cited four times in the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, which affirmed the constitutionality of school vouchers.

John T. Walton

John WaltonJohnJohn Thomas
Other notable supporters include New Jersey Senator Cory Booker, former Governor of South Carolina Mark Sanford, billionaire and American philanthropist John T. Walton, Former Mayor of Baltimore Kurt L. Schmoke, Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and John McCain.
He was an advocate of school vouchers.


Friedman Foundation for Educational ChoiceFoundation for Educational ChoiceMilton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation
The Foundation for Educational Choice alleges that a school voucher plan "embodies exactly the same principle as the GI bills that provide for educational benefits to military veterans. The veteran gets a voucher good only for educational expense and he is completely free to choose the school at which he uses it, provided that it satisfies certain standards."
Friedman proposed that parents should be able to receive those education funds in the form of vouchers, which would allow them to choose their children's schools, including both public and private, religious and non-religious options.

Gary Johnson

Gary E. JohnsonGovernor Gary JohnsonGary E Johnson
In New Mexico, then-Republican Gary Johnson made school voucher provision the major issue of his second term as Governor.
In his second term, he concentrated on the issue of school voucher reforms as well as campaigning for cannabis decriminalization.

Institute for Justice

This decision was criticized by Clark Neily, Institute for Justice senior attorney and legal counsel to Pensacola families using Florida Opportunity Scholarships, as, "educational policymaking".
It has litigated eight cases considered by the United States Supreme Court dealing with topics that included eminent domain, interstate commerce, public financing for elections, school vouchers, tax credits for private school tuition, civil asset forfeiture, and residency requirements for liquor license.

Betsy DeVos

Betsy De VosDeVosElisabeth DeVos
Betsy DeVos, Trump's education secretary, is also an advocate for voucher programs, and has argued that they would lead to better educational outcomes for students.
DeVos is a Republican known for her support for school choice, school voucher programs, and charter schools.

D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program

Washington Scholarship Fund
The Federal government provided a voucher program for 7,500 residents of Washington, D.C. - the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program.
The program was the first Federally funded school voucher program in the United States.

National Education Association

NEANational Educational AssociationIllinois Education Association
In the United States, public school teacher unions, most notably the National Education Association (the largest labor union in the USA), argue that school vouchers erode educational standards and reduce funding, and that giving money to parents who choose to send their child to a religious or other school is unconstitutional.
The NEA has often opposed measures such as merit pay, school vouchers, weakening of teacher tenure, certain curricular changes, the No Child Left Behind Act, and other reforms that make it easier for school districts to use disciplinary action against teachers.

Kevin G. Welner

Kevin Welner
Kevin Welner points out that vouchers funded through a convoluted tax credit system—a policy he calls "neovouchers"—present additional accountability concerns.
Welner has studied the public right to education, tracking, school vouchers, school choice, educational equity, and the use of research.

Florida Opportunity Scholarship Program

In 2006, the Florida Supreme Court struck down legislation known as the Florida Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP), which would have implemented a system of school vouchers in Florida.
The Florida Opportunity Scholarship Program was a school voucher program in the U.S. state of Florida.

Establishment Clause

Establishment Clause of the First Amendmentestablishment of religionestablishment
The Supreme Court ruled that the Ohio program did not violate the Establishment Clause, because it passed a five-part test developed by the Court in this case, titled the Private Choice Test.
One of the largest recent controversies over the amendment centered on school vouchers—government aid for students to attend private and predominantly religious schools.

Jonathan Kozol

Jonathon KozolKozolKozol, Jonathan
Jonathan Kozol, a prominent public school reform thinker and former public school teacher called vouchers the "single worst, most dangerous idea to have entered education discourse in my adult life".
He is still active in advocating for integrated public education in the United States and is a critic of the school voucher movement.