Schools of Islamic theology

Islamic theologytheologyMuslim theologyMuslim theologianIslamic theologiantheologiantheologicalIslamic theologicalAqidahcreed
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).wikipedia
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Islamic schools and branches

Islamic conservatismdenominationbranches of Islam
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).
There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: schools of jurisprudence, Sufi orders and schools of theology.

Iman (Islam)

imansix articles of faithfaith
Another point of contention was the relative position of iman ("faith") vs. taqwa ("piety").
Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, lit. faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam.

Sunnah

SunnaSunnatprophetic tradition
The word Sunni comes from the word sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Quran (the holy book of Islam) and the sunnah make up the two primary sources of Islamic theology and law.

Kalam

Islamic theologyIlm al-KalamIslamic theologian
Such schools of theology are summarized under Ilm al-Kalam, or "science of discourse", as opposed to mystical schools who deny that any theological truth may be discovered by means of discourse or reason. Atharism (أثري; textualism) is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"), usually foreshortened to Kalām and sometimes called "Islamic scholastic theology", is the study of Islamic doctrine ('aqa'id).

Religious denomination

denominationdenominationaldenominations
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h or simply as Ahl as-Sunnah.
Within Islam, it can refer to the branches or sects (such as Sunni, Shia and Ahmadiyya), as well as their various subdivisions such as sub-sects, schools of jurisprudence, schools of theology and religious movements.

Al-Ghazali

Al-Ghazzalial-GhazālīAbu Hamid al-Ghazali
The most famous of these are Abul-Hassan Al-Bahili, Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani, al-Juwayni, Al-Razi and Al-Ghazali.
1058 – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential Muslim philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunni Islam.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
Atharism (أثري; textualism) is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran. Based on Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi's criticism of Athari-Hanbalis, Muhammad Abu Zahra, a Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University deduced that Salafi aqidah is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy (Absolute Ẓāhirīsm in understanding the tashbih in Qur'an) in Islam. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community regard Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ") the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a 'subordinate' prophet to Muhammad whose job was to restore the Sharia given to Muhammad by guiding or rallying disenchanted Ummah back to Islam and thwart attacks on Islam by its opponents, as the "Promised One" of all religions fulfilling eschatological prophecies found in the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions, as well as Zoroastrianism, the Indian religions, Native American traditions and others.
Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God.

Tashbih

tashbīh
Based on Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi's criticism of Athari-Hanbalis, Muhammad Abu Zahra, a Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University deduced that Salafi aqidah is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy (Absolute Ẓāhirīsm in understanding the tashbih in Qur'an) in Islam.
In Islamic theology, two opposite terms are attributed to Allah, tashbih and tanzih, or distance and transcendence.

Ismah

infallibleismainfallibility
Kharijites reject the doctrine of infallibility for the leader of the Muslim community, in contrast to Shi'a but in agreement with Sunnis.
‘Iṣmah or ‘Isma (عِصْمَة; literally, "protection") is the concept of incorruptible innocence, immunity from sin, or moral infallibility in Islamic theology, and which is especially prominent in Shia Islam.

Bishriyya

Bishr ibn al-Mu'tamirBishr ibn al-Mu‘tamir
Bishriyya followed the teachings of Bishr ibn al-Mu'tamir which were distinct from Wasil ibn Ata.
The Bishriyya was a sub-sect of the Mu'tazilite school of Islamic theology.

Muʿtazila

Mu'taziliMu'tazilaMu'tazilite
According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Qadariyah, Jahmis, Murji'ah, Muʿtazila, Batiniyya, Ash'ari, Maturidi, Athari are the ancient schools of aqidah.
Muʿtazila is a rationalist school of Islamic theology that flourished in the cities of Basra and Baghdad, both now in Iraq, during the 8th to the 10th centuries.

Sunni Islam

SunniSunni MuslimSunni Muslims
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h or simply as Ahl as-Sunnah. The main split between Sunni and Shia Islam was initially more political than theological, but over time theological differences have developed. The lines of poetry above may easily be judged as an act of "Shirk" (polytheism) by the Sunni Ulama, but they have a bāṭenī taʾwīl (inner explanation) in Qizilbashism.
The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.

Aqidah

AqeedahʿAqīdahAqida
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed). Based on Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi's criticism of Athari-Hanbalis, Muhammad Abu Zahra, a Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University deduced that Salafi aqidah is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy (Absolute Ẓāhirīsm in understanding the tashbih in Qur'an) in Islam. Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning "creed" or "belief".
Many schools of Islamic theology expressing different views on aqidah exist.

Muhammad Abu Zahra

Based on Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi's criticism of Athari-Hanbalis, Muhammad Abu Zahra, a Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University deduced that Salafi aqidah is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy (Absolute Ẓāhirīsm in understanding the tashbih in Qur'an) in Islam. According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Qadariyah, Jahmis, Murji'ah, Muʿtazila, Batiniyya, Ash'ari, Maturidi, Athari are the ancient schools of aqidah.
According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Ghulam Ahmad deviated from the mainstream aqidah of Islam due to his distinct views which is not shared by any other Schools of Islamic theology.

Murji'ah

Murji'aMurjitesmurijee
According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Qadariyah, Jahmis, Murji'ah, Muʿtazila, Batiniyya, Ash'ari, Maturidi, Athari are the ancient schools of aqidah.

Creed

confession of faithstatement of faithArticles of Faith
Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning "creed" or "belief".

Alawites

AlawiteAlawiAlawis
The followers of "Batiniyyah-Twelver" madh'hab consist of Alevis and Nusayris, who developed their own fiqh system and do not pursue the Ja'fari jurisprudence.
The Alawites revere Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), considered the first Imam of the Twelver school.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
Since the founding of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans followed the Maturidi creed (school of Islamic theology) and the Hanafi madhab (school of Islamic jurisprudence).

Islamic studies

Islamic educationIslamiyatIslamologist
Such secular academic programs often include the historical study of Islam: Islamic civilization, Islamic history and historiography, Islamic law, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy.

Alevism

AleviAlevisAlevi Islam
The followers of "Batiniyyah-Twelver" madh'hab consist of Alevis and Nusayris, who developed their own fiqh system and do not pursue the Ja'fari jurisprudence.
! The schematic history of the development of the Imāmī-Alevism from other Shī‘ah Muslim sects

Ulama

Islamic scholarulemaalim
The lines of poetry above may easily be judged as an act of "Shirk" (polytheism) by the Sunni Ulama, but they have a bāṭenī taʾwīl (inner explanation) in Qizilbashism.
Islamic theology experienced further developments among Shia theologians.

Sufi metaphysics

Wahdat-ul-Wujoodwahdat al-wujudWaḥdat al-Wujūd
Bektashism places much emphasis on the concept of Wahdat-ul-Wujood وحدة الوجود, the "Unity of Being" that was formulated by Ibn Arabi.
Sufi metaphysics has been a subject to criticism by most non-Sufis; in Al-Andalus, where most of the Muslim scholars were either Zahirites or Malikites preferring the Ash'arite creed, Sufi metaphysics was considered blasphemy and its practitioners blacklisted.

Abrahamic religions

AbrahamicAbrahamic religionAbrahamic faiths
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community regard Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ") the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a 'subordinate' prophet to Muhammad whose job was to restore the Sharia given to Muhammad by guiding or rallying disenchanted Ummah back to Islam and thwart attacks on Islam by its opponents, as the "Promised One" of all religions fulfilling eschatological prophecies found in the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions, as well as Zoroastrianism, the Indian religions, Native American traditions and others.
In Islamic theology, God (الله ''all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence.

Theology of Twelvers

Usul al-DinPrinciples of the ReligionRoots of Religion
Followers of the Jaf'ari madh'hab are divided into the following sub-divisions, all of them are the followers of the Theology of Twelvers: