Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledgescientistgeneral sciencescientistsscientific studyIntegrated Sciencescientific researchempirical sciences
Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.wikipedia
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Medicine

medicalmedical sciencemedicinal
Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes.
Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
The scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition which has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century.

Branches of science

scientific disciplineField of sciencescientific field
Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts.
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines," are commonly divided into three major groups:

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

Scientist

scientistsresearch scientistscience
The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
In modern times, many scientists have advanced degrees in an area of science and pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry, government, and nonprofit environments.

Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions.
In the 19th century, William Whewell described the revolution in science itself—the scientific method—that had taken place in the 15th–16th century.

Modern history

modern eramodernmodern times
Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations.
The modern period has been a period of significant development in the fields of science, politics, warfare, and technology.

Islamic Golden Age

medieval Islamic worldIslamic civilizationIslamic world
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age.
They also excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Thabit Ibn Qurra, Yusuf Al-Khuri, Al Himsi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch Eutychius, and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu ) and theology.

Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies.
There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc.

Nature

naturalnatural worldnaturally
Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" (ancient Greek phusis) by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of science.

Supernatural

supernaturalismspiritualsupernatural powers
The early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, which was founded by Thales of Miletus and later continued by his successors Anaximander and Anaximenes, were the first to attempt to explain natural phenomena without relying on the supernatural.
The concept of the supernatural encompasses anything that is inexplicable by scientific understanding of the laws of nature but nevertheless argued by believers to exist.

Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
They were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy.
In modern science, the term "theory" refers to scientific theories, a well-confirmed type of explanation of nature, made in a way consistent with scientific method, and fulfilling the criteria required by modern science.

Physis

naturephysiolatrynatures
Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" (ancient Greek phusis) by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
Physis (Greek: φύσις phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".

Anaximander

Anaximander of MiletusἈναξίμανδρος
The early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, which was founded by Thales of Miletus and later continued by his successors Anaximander and Anaximenes, were the first to attempt to explain natural phenomena without relying on the supernatural.
He was an early proponent of science and tried to observe and explain different aspects of the universe, with a particular interest in its origins, claiming that nature is ruled by laws, just like human societies, and anything that disturbs the balance of nature does not last long.

Alchemy

alchemistalchemicalalchemists
It is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy.
In Europe, following the 12th-century Renaissance produced by the translation of Medieval Islamic works on science and the rediscovery of Aristotelian philosophy, alchemists played a significant role in early modern science (particularly chemistry and medicine).

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
The Socratic method as documented by Plato's dialogues is a dialectic method of hypothesis elimination: better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.
Along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato laid the foundations of Western philosophy and science.

Thales of Miletus

ThalesThales NederlandThalis
The early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, which was founded by Thales of Miletus and later continued by his successors Anaximander and Anaximenes, were the first to attempt to explain natural phenomena without relying on the supernatural.
Thales is recognized for breaking from the use of mythology to explain the world and the universe, and instead explaining natural objects and phenomena by theories and hypotheses, in a precursor to modern science.

Calculus

infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus
The inventor and mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse made major contributions to the beginnings of calculus and has sometimes been credited as its inventor, although his proto-calculus lacked several defining features.
Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering, and economics.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetoricalrhetor
This was a reaction to the Sophist emphasis on rhetoric.
Even in the field of science, the practices of which were once viewed as being merely the objective testing and reporting of knowledge, scientists must persuade their audience to accept their findings by sufficiently demonstrating that their study or experiment was conducted reliably and resulted in sufficient evidence to support their conclusions.

Universe

physical worldthe universeuniverses
Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
The proposition is discussed among philosophers, scientists, theologians, and proponents of creationism.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
Haraway's argument stems from the limitations of the human perception, as well as the overemphasis of the sense of vision in science.

Technology

technologiestechnologicaltechnical
In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice or technology, Greek technē) was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans.
As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.

Pre-Socratic philosophy

pre-Socraticpre-Socraticspre-Socratic philosophers
Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" (ancient Greek phusis) by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
Furthermore, the cosmologies proposed by them have been updated by later developments in science.

Renaissance of the 12th century

twelfth-century renaissance12th-century Renaissance12th century Renaissance
The influx of ancient texts caused the Renaissance of the 12th century and the flourishing of a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism in western Europe, which became a new geographic center of science.
It included social, political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Western Europe with strong philosophical and scientific roots.

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
The Socratics also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being (a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy).
Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion, and the process of ijtihad to find truth—in effect all philosophy was "political" as it had real implications for governance.