Science and technology in Israel

Albert Einstein at the Technion in 1923
WEIZAC in 1954, the first modern computer in the Middle East
The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center
Ofek-7 satellite launch through Shavit vehicle
Gulfstream G280 transcontinental business jet was designed and is currently produced for Gulfstream Aerospace by Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI)
Anaerobic digesters at Hiriya waste facility
IAI Harop, Israel, is the world's largest exporter of drones.
Israeli soldier with Spike (missile)
Given endoscopic capsule

One of the country's most developed sectors.

- Science and technology in Israel

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Tel Aviv

Most populous city in the Gush Dan metropolitan area of Israel.

Tel Aviv is named after Theodor Herzl's 1902 novel, Altneuland ("Old New Land"), for which the title of the Hebrew edition was "Tel Aviv"
Ancient port of Jaffa where, according to the Bible, Jonah set sail into the Mediterranean Sea before being swallowed by a fish
Tel Aviv bus station during the Mandate era
Shadal Street in 1926
Magen David Square in 1936
Crowd outside Dizengoff House (now Independence Hall) to witness the proclamation and signing of Israel's Declaration of Independence in 1948
Azrieli Sarona tower (238.5 metres high), finished in 2017
Arlozorov Young Towers 1, finished in 2020
Tel Aviv seen from space in 2003
City plan of Tel Aviv, Israel
Rabin Square and Tel Aviv City Hall looking northwest
Tel Aviv old city hall
The Vladimir Schreiber Institute of Mathematics at Tel Aviv University
Sarona, old Templer houses and modern highrises
The Great Synagogue
The restored Immanuel Church, Jaffa
Kerem HaTeimanim was founded as a predominantly Yemenite Jewish neighborhood in the center of Tel Aviv
1930s Bauhaus (left) and 1920s Eclectic (right) architectural styles
The well-known eclectic Levin House, by Yehuda Magidovitch, backed by skyscrapers
Bauhaus Museum displaying Bauhaus furnishings
The Azrieli Center complex contains some of the tallest skyscrapers in Tel Aviv
Nehoshtan Tower, Neve Tzedek
The "First International Bank Tower" in Tel Aviv's financial district
Tel Aviv at night
Tel Aviv Pride is the largest annual pride parade in the Middle East and Asia
Tel Aviv Museum of Art, the Herta and Paul Amir Building
The Tel Aviv Marathon going through Hayarkon Park
Bloomfield Stadium
Menora Mivtachim Arena
Drive in Arena
IDF soldiers cleaning the beaches at Tel Aviv, which have scored highly in environmental tests
Charles Clore Park
Ayalon Highway, which runs through Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv Central Railway Station
Begin Road as seen from Azrieli Center
Tel-O-Fun bicycle rental system
Ichilov Hospital, part of Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
Tel Aviv 1943 1:20,000
Tel Aviv 1945 1:250,000
Tel Aviv, Allenby Street, 1940
Tel Aviv port 1939
Dizengoff Square in the 1940s
Israeli Air Force F-16I Sufas over Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv Dolphinarium, demolished in 2018, site of the 2001 Dolphinarium discotheque suicide bombing, in which 21 Israelis, mostly teenagers, were killed
The Suzanne Dellal Center for Dance and Theater
A street café in Florentin, Tel Aviv
Heichal HaTarbut theatre, home to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra
Hayarkon Park is the largest city park in Tel Aviv
Early evening at the beach

Located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline and with a population of, it is the economic and technological center of the country.


Country in Western Asia.

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.


Interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering.

The Shadow robot hand system
Mechanical construction
Electrical aspect
A level of programming
The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
A robotic leg powered by air muscles
KUKA industrial robot operating in a foundry
Puma, one of the first industrial robots
Baxter, a modern and versatile industrial robot developed by Rodney Brooks
Lefty, first checker playing robot
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya
TALON military robots used by the United States Army
Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom per segment), the right one 10.
Capuchin, a climbing robot
Robotic Fish: iSplash-II
The autonomous sailboat robot Vaimos
Radar, GPS, and lidar, are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance (vehicle developed for 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge)
Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions.
Puppet Magnus, a robot-manipulated marionette with complex control systems.
Experimental planar robot arm and sensor-based, open-architecture robot controller developed at Sunderland University, UK in 2000
RuBot II can manually resolve Rubik's cubes.
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo IREX 2009.
Two Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineers stand with three vehicles, providing a size comparison of three generations of Mars rovers. Front and center is the flight spare for the first Mars rover, Sojourner, which landed on Mars in 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Project. On the left is a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) test vehicle that is a working sibling to Spirit and Opportunity, which landed on Mars in 2004. On the right is a test rover for the Mars Science Laboratory, which landed Curiosity on Mars in 2012. Sojourner is 65 cm long. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) are 1.6 m long. Curiosity on the right is 3 m long.
The SCORBOT-ER 4u educational robot
A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. (Courtesy: MobileRobots, Inc.)

Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009, called SmartHand, which functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it, type on a keyboard, play piano and perform other fine movements.

Ministry of Science, Technology and Space

Government ministry in Israel, headed by the Science and Technology Minister.

The ministry is responsible for defining national policy on issues related to Science and technology in Israel, and promoting scientific and technological research, infrastructure and projects.


The first computer in Israel, and one of the first large-scale, stored-program, electronic computers in the world.

Section of WEIZAC on display in 2007
WEIZAC construction
WEIZAC in use

WEIZAC's success led to the recognition of the demand for computers and digital technology in Israel, and ultimately, provided the foundation for Israel's computer and technology industries.

Comverse Technology

Technology company located in Woodbury, New York in the United States, that developed and marketed telecommunications software.

Comverse offices in Tel Aviv, 2006
Comverse co-founder and CEO Jacob "Kobi" Alexander
The Comverse Network Systems subsidiary's headquarters building was in Wakefield, Massachusetts in the U.S.
Another view of a Comverse building in Tel Aviv, from 2006

While headquartered in the US, most of the company's research and development was done in Israel; Comverse became one of the more visible success stories in Israel's hi-tech industry.

Silicon Wadi

Region in Israel that serves as one of the global centres for advanced technology.

Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Azorim high-tech park in Petah Tikva
Start-up village high-tech park in Yokneam Illit
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
Microsoft building in Herzliya
Intel building in Petah Tikva
IBM building in Petah Tikva
The Jerusalem Technology Park
Hewlett-Packard, Intel, and Micron production plants in Kiryat Gat
Jerusalem Venture Partners (JVP) compound in Jerusalem, one of Israel's largest venture capital firms
SanDisk facility in Kfar Saba
Marvell Technology Inc. development centre in Petah Tikva
CA Technologies development centre in Herzliya

It spans the Israeli coastal plain, and is cited as among the reasons why Israel has become known as the world's "start-up nation" (see science and technology in Israel).

Jewish Agency for Israel

Largest Jewish non-profit organization in the world.

Jewish Agency headquarters, Jerusalem
The Arab city of Umm al-Fahm in northern Israel
Druze Israeli soldiers of the Herev Battalion, also known as the IDF Minorities Unit
Bomb shelter in Sderot, Israel
Jewish immigrants of the Second Aliyah, 1912
Chaim Weizmann, founder and director of the Zionist Commission (a precursor of the Jewish Agency), leader of the Zionist Organization, and first President of the State of Israel
The front page of the Mandate for Palestine and Transjordan memorandum, presented to UK Parliament in December 1922, prior to it coming into force in 1923. The British control of the region lasted until 1948.
Palestine immigrant certificate issued in Warsaw (16-9-1935) by the Jewish Agency.
David Ben-Gurion was Chairman of the Executive of the Jewish Agency from 1935–1948. Upon the founding of the State of Israel, he left his position to become the first Prime Minister of the state.
Offices of the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem following car bomb 11 March 1948
Recha Freier, founder of Youth Aliyah, circa 1964. Youth Aliyah saved more than 5,000 young European Jews by bringing them to Palestine in the years preceding the Holocaust.
Survivors of the Buchenwald concentration camp arriving in Palestine in 1945. Since their immigration was illegal, they were arrested by the British.
David Ben-Gurion, Chairman of the Jewish Agency, declaring the establishment of the State of Israel, in Tel Aviv, May 14, 1948. Ben-Gurion became Israel's first Prime Minister.
Yemenite Jews arriving in Israel through Operation Magic Carpet.
Ethiopian Jews arriving in Israel from Addis Ababa, through Operation Solomon, 1991
Participants on a Taglit-Birthright trip to Israel, 2012
Natan Sharansky, former Chairman of the Executive of the Jewish Agency for Israel, in 2016
Jewish Agency headquarters in Jerusalem

The emergence of the high-tech industry in Israel created a significant socio-economic disparity between the center of country and the outer regions.


Largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.

Tel Sheva archaeological site
Beersheba in 1901
View of Beersheba from the south in 1902.
Beersheba, 1917
Beersheba 1938
Beersheba Turkish Railway Station
Beersheba 1945 1:250,000
Beersheba 1947 1:20,000
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra performing in Beersheba, Israel, 1948
Monument to the Negev Brigade, Danny Karavan
Beersheba in the 1960s
Beersheba in the mid-1980s
Panorama of Beersheba
Pipes Bridge, 2012
Modern Beersheba
Beersheva emblem on a 1965 stamp
Dry riverbed in Nahal Ashan park
Negev Mall Tower
Beersheba District Court
Ben Gurion University of the Negev
Shamoon College of Engineering
Keren Cinema, first movie theater in the Negev
The Great Mosque of Beersheba in 1948
Mexico Bridge from railway station to Ben-Gurion University
Ilan Ramon
Beersheba 1948
Beersheba police station. 1948. Original building Ottoman with British Mandate addition.
Beersheba mosque. 1948
A mosque in Be'ersheva photographed during Operation Yoav, 1948
Harel Brigade assembling in Beersheba prior to Operation Horev, 25 December 1948
Nahal Beersheba in flood, 1948

This city also serves as a center for Israel's high-tech and developing technology industry.

Roman Abramovich

Russian oligarch, businessman, philanthropist and politician.

Abramovich in 2021
Abramovich in July 2008
Abramovich at Stamford Bridge during a 4–0 victory over Portsmouth in August 2008
Abramovich watches his team Chelsea play against Leicester City, August 2014
Abramovich at the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany
The world's second largest expedition yacht, Luna, seen docked in San Diego, January 2013. Sold to Farkhad Akhmedov in April 2014 for US$360 million.
Abramovich's Boeing 767, The Bandit, landing at Ben Gurion Airport, Israel
Statue of Abramovich in a mall in Eilat, Israel

in 20 Israeli start-ups ranging from medicine and renewable energy, to social media.