Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionssciencescientific developments of the 17th centuryThe Scientific RevolutionWestern science17th century transitionageemerging scienceemerging sciences
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.wikipedia
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Nicolaus Copernicus

CopernicusCopernicanNicholas Copernicus
While its dates are debated, the publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is often cited as marking the beginning of the Scientific Revolution. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543), Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), Kepler (1571–1630) and Newton (1642–1727), all traced different ancient and medieval ancestries for the heliocentric system.
The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making a pioneering contribution to the Scientific Revolution.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment.
The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
In the 19th century, William Whewell described the revolution in science itself—the scientific method—that had taken place in the 15th–16th century.
The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived "natural philosophy", which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
In the 19th century, William Whewell described the revolution in science itself—the scientific method—that had taken place in the 15th–16th century.
This model can be seen to underlie the scientific revolution.

History of science

historian of sciencemodern sciencehistory
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
While observations of the natural world have been described since classical antiquity (for example, by Thales and Aristotle), and the scientific method has been employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham and Roger Bacon), modern science began to develop in the early modern period, and in particular in the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe.

Johannes Kepler

KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543), Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), Kepler (1571–1630) and Newton (1642–1727), all traced different ancient and medieval ancestries for the heliocentric system.
He is a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensChristian HuygensChristiaan Huyghens
In the Axioms Scholium of his Principia, Newton said its axiomatic three laws of motion were already accepted by mathematicians such as Huygens (1629–1695), Wallace, Wren and others.
Christiaan Huygens (, also, ; Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

History of physics

physicshistorymodern physics
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, a large advancement of scientific progress known as the Scientific revolution took place in Europe.

History of science in the Renaissance

scienceRenaissance scienceRenaissance scientists
The beginning of the Scientific Revolution, the 'Scientific Renaissance', was focused on the recovery of the knowledge of the ancients; this is generally considered to have ended in 1632 with publication of Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.
Marie Boas Hall coined the term Scientific Renaissance to designate the early phase of the Scientific Revolution, 1450–1630.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543), Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), Kepler (1571–1630) and Newton (1642–1727), all traced different ancient and medieval ancestries for the heliocentric system. The completion of the Scientific Revolution is attributed to the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia. The Scientific Revolution is traditionally assumed to start with the Copernican Revolution (initiated in 1543) and to be complete in the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Structure of Scientific RevolutionsHistorical turn1962 book
Thomas Kuhn's 1962 work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions emphasized that different theoretical frameworks—such as Einstein's relativity theory and Newton's theory of gravity, which it replaced—cannot be directly compared.
Kuhn's approach to the history and philosophy of science focuses on conceptual issues like the practice of normal science, influence of historical events, emergence of scientific discoveries, nature of scientific revolutions and progress through scientific revolutions.

Classical element

four elementsclassical elementselements
Boyle appealed to chemists to experiment and asserted that experiments denied the limiting of chemical elements to only the classic four: earth, fire, air, and water.
In Europe, the Ancient Greek system of Aristotle evolved slightly into the medieval system, which for the first time in Europe became subject to experimental verification in the 1600s, during the Scientific Revolution.

European science in the Middle Ages

Science in Medieval Western EuropeEuropeanEurope of the Middle Ages
Prior thinkers, including the early-14th-century nominalist philosopher William of Ockham, had begun the intellectual movement toward empiricism.
Scholarship and scientific discoveries of the Late Middle Ages laid the groundwork for the Scientific Revolution of the Early Modern Period.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment.
Some view this as a "scientific revolution", heralding the beginning of the modern age, others as an acceleration of a continuous process stretching from the ancient world to the present day.

Early modern period

early moderncolonial eraearly modern era
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
His book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) began modern astronomy and sparked the Scientific Revolution.

Celestial spheres

celestial sphereplanetary spherescelestial
Mainstream belief in the theory of celestial spheres did not survive the Scientific Revolution.

Aristotelianism

AristotelianAristotelian philosophyAristotelians
He passionately rejected both the prevailing Aristotelian philosophy and the Scholastic method of university teaching.
In Aristotle's time, philosophy included natural philosophy, which preceded the advent of modern science during the Scientific Revolution.

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianRene Descartes
The term British empiricism came into use to describe philosophical differences perceived between two of its founders Francis Bacon, described as empiricist, and René Descartes, who was described as a rationalist.
Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Galileo Galilei has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".
Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right.

Mechanical philosophy

mechanisticMechanicismmechanical metaphor
In "mechanical philosophy" no field or action at a distance is permitted, particles or corpuscles of matter are fundamentally inert.
The mechanical philosophy is associated with the scientific revolution of Early Modern Europe.

Thomas Kuhn

Thomas S. KuhnThomas Samuel KuhnKuhn
Thomas Kuhn's 1962 work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions emphasized that different theoretical frameworks—such as Einstein's relativity theory and Newton's theory of gravity, which it replaced—cannot be directly compared.
The enormous impact of Kuhn's work can be measured in the changes it brought about in the vocabulary of the philosophy of science: besides "paradigm shift", Kuhn popularized the word "paradigm" itself from a term used in certain forms of linguistics and the work of Georg Lichtenberg to its current broader meaning, coined the term "normal science" to refer to the relatively routine, day-to-day work of scientists working within a paradigm, and was largely responsible for the use of the term "scientific revolutions" in the plural, taking place at widely different periods of time and in different disciplines, as opposed to a single scientific revolution in the late Renaissance.

Ptolemy

Claudius PtolemyClaudius PtolemaeusPtolemaic
His observations of the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, the spots on the sun, and mountains on the moon all helped to discredit the Aristotelian philosophy and the Ptolemaic theory of the solar system.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution.

Alexandre Koyré

Alexandre KoyreKoyréKoyré, Alexandre
In the 20th century, Alexandre Koyré introduced the term "scientific revolution", centering his analysis on Galileo.
According to Koyré, it was not the experimental or empirical nature of Galileo's and Newton's discoveries that carried the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries, but a shift in perspective, a change in theoretical outlook toward the world.

Copernican Revolution

CopernicanCopernican "revolutionCopernican astronomy
The Scientific Revolution is traditionally assumed to start with the Copernican Revolution (initiated in 1543) and to be complete in the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia.
He was a main figure in the Scientific Revolution for his laws of motion and universal gravitation.

Cosmos

cosmicKosmosorder
This theory persisted until the Scientific Revolution, when the discovery that the Sun was in the center of the planetary system rocked cosmological understanding to its core.