Scientific calculator

Scientificscientific calculatorshigher mathscientific pocket calculatorcalculatorsnon-programmable scientific calculatorscientific capabilities
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.wikipedia
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Logarithm

logarithmsloglogarithmic function
logarithmic functions, using both base 10 and base e
Typical scientific calculators calculate the logarithms to bases 10 and [[e (mathematical constant)|]].

Floating-point arithmetic

floating pointfloating-pointfloating-point number
floating point arithmetic
On the design rationale of the x87 80-bit format, Kahan notes: "This Extended format is designed to be used, with negligible loss of speed, for all but the simplest arithmetic with float and double operands. For example, it should be used for scratch variables in loops that implement recurrences like polynomial evaluation, scalar products, partial and continued fractions. It often averts premature Over/Underflow or severe local cancellation that can spoil simple algorithms". Computing intermediate results in an extended format with high precision and extended exponent has precedents in the historical practice of scientific calculation and in the design of scientific calculators e.g. Hewlett-Packard's financial calculators performed arithmetic and financial functions to three more significant decimals than they stored or displayed. The implementation of extended precision enabled standard elementary function libraries to be readily developed that normally gave double precision results within one unit in the last place (ULP) at high speed.

Trigonometry

trigonometrictrigonometricaltrigonometrically
trigonometric functions (some including hyperbolic trigonometry)
Today, scientific calculators have buttons for calculating the main trigonometric functions (sin, cos, tan, and sometimes cis and their inverses).

Calculator

pocket calculatorcalculatorselectronic calculator
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics. The HP-35, introduced on February 1, 1972, was Hewlett-Packard's first pocket calculator and the world's first handheld scientific calculator.
For example, there are scientific calculators which include trigonometric and statistical calculations.

TI-30

TI-30XTI-30X IISTI-30XB
TI continues to be a major player in the calculator market, with their long-running TI-30 series being one of the most widely used scientific calculators in classrooms.
The TI-30 was a scientific calculator manufactured by Texas Instruments, the first model of which was introduced in 1976.

Programmable calculator

Programmablecalculatorsprogrammable calculators
programmability — see Programmable calculator
BASIC-programmable calculators often featured an additional "calculator-like" keyboard and a special calculator mode in which the system behaved like a scientific calculator.

Calculator input methods

RPNInfixD.A.L.
Calculator input methods
Scientific calculators, including the Scientific mode in the Windows calculator and most modern software calculators, have buttons for brackets and can take order of operation into account.

Hewlett-Packard 9100A

HP 9100A9100A Desktop CalculatorHP 9100
The first scientific calculator that included all of the basic ideas above was the programmable Hewlett-Packard HP-9100A, released in 1968, though the Wang LOCI-2 and the Mathatronics Mathatron had some features later identified with scientific calculator designs.
The 9100A was the first scientific calculator by the modern definition (i.e. trig, log/ln, and exponential functions), and was the beginning of Hewlett-Packard's long history of using Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) entry on their calculators.

CORDIC

digit-by-digit algorithmfactor combining
The HP-9100 series was built entirely from discrete transistor logic with no integrated circuits, and was one of the first uses of the CORDIC algorithm for trigonometric computation in a personal computing device, as well as the first calculator based on Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) entry.
This development resulted in the first scientific handheld calculator, the HP-35 in 1972.

HP 48 series

48HP 4848G
HP became closely identified with RPN calculators from then on, and even today some of their high-end calculators (particularly the long-lived HP-12C financial calculator and the HP-48 series of graphing calculators) still offer RPN as their default input mode due to having garnered a very large following.

HP-35

Hewlett Packard HP 35scientific calculatorscientific pocket calculator
The HP-35, introduced on February 1, 1972, was Hewlett-Packard's first pocket calculator and the world's first handheld scientific calculator.

Electronics

electronicelectronic deviceelectronic equipment
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.

Engineering

engineerengineersengineered
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.

Slide rule

slide rulescircular slide ruleslide-rule
They have almost completely replaced slide rules in traditional applications, and are widely used in both education and professional settings.

Graphing calculator

graphing calculatorsGraphinggraphical calculator
In certain contexts such as higher education, scientific calculators have been superseded by graphing calculators, which offer a superset of scientific calculator functionality along with the ability to graph input data and write and store programs for the device. A few have multi-line displays, with some models from Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments (both US manufacturers), Casio, Sharp, and Canon (all three Japanese makers) using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculators.
Scientific calculator

Financial calculator

Financialbusiness calculatorfinancial and business calculator
There is also some overlap with the financial calculator market.

Hewlett-Packard

HPHewlett PackardHewlett-Packard Company
A few have multi-line displays, with some models from Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments (both US manufacturers), Casio, Sharp, and Canon (all three Japanese makers) using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculators.

Texas Instruments

TITexas Instruments (TI)Texas Instruments, Inc.
A few have multi-line displays, with some models from Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments (both US manufacturers), Casio, Sharp, and Canon (all three Japanese makers) using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculators.

Casio

Casio Computer Co., LtdCasio ComputerCASIO Computer Co.
A few have multi-line displays, with some models from Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments (both US manufacturers), Casio, Sharp, and Canon (all three Japanese makers) using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculators.

Sharp Corporation

SharpSharp ElectronicsSharp (Rice Cooker)
A few have multi-line displays, with some models from Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments (both US manufacturers), Casio, Sharp, and Canon (all three Japanese makers) using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculators.

Canon Inc.

CanonCanon Camera K. K.Canon Inc
A few have multi-line displays, with some models from Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments (both US manufacturers), Casio, Sharp, and Canon (all three Japanese makers) using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculators.

Dot matrix

dot-matrixall points addressableAPA
A few have multi-line displays, with some models from Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments (both US manufacturers), Casio, Sharp, and Canon (all three Japanese makers) using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculators.