Scientific journal

Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
Title page of the first volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science

Periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.

- Scientific journal
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869

16 related topics

Alpha

Open access logo, originally designed by Public Library of Science

Open access

Set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of access charges or other barriers.

Set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of access charges or other barriers.

Open access logo, originally designed by Public Library of Science
Venn diagram highlighting the key features of different types of open access in scholarly publishing.
Download rate for articles on Sci-Hub (black open access)
Licenses used by gold and hybrid OA journals in DOAJ
Article processing charges by gold OA journals in DOAJ
Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO
Length of embargo times for bronze Elsevier journals
Share of hybrid open access (OA) articles in the subscription journals of the top three publishers. JCR, Journal Citation Reports. Reproduced
Number of open access repositories listed in the Registry of Open Access Repositories

All researchers benefit from open access as no library can afford to subscribe to every scientific journal and most can only afford a small fraction of them – this is known as the "serials crisis".

Scientific and technical journal publications per million residents (2013)

Academic publishing

Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

Scientific and technical journal publications per million residents (2013)

Most scientific research is initially published in scientific journals and considered to be a primary source.

ArXiv

Open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not peer review.

Open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not peer review.

A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994, using the browser NCSA Mosaic. At the time, HTML forms were a new technology.
ArXiv's daily submission rate growth over 30 years since its beginning with topics labelled by the standard abbreviations used on arxiv.org
A screenshot of viewing a paper's abstract on arxiv.org in 2021

A majority of the e-prints are also submitted to journals for publication, but some work, including some very influential papers, remain purely as e-prints and are never published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Cover of a 2016 issue of Nature featuring artistic representation of Proxima Centauri and its planet Proxima b

Nature (journal)

Cover of a 2016 issue of Nature featuring artistic representation of Proxima Centauri and its planet Proxima b
First title page, 4 November 1869
Skewed curve of citations per article in 2015 to Nature articles from 2013 to 2014.
Nature Materials, a specialized journal from Nature Research, 2018.

Nature is a British weekly scientific journal founded and based in London, England.

Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO.

Preprint

Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO.

In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.

Cover of the first volume of the first series (discontinued 1882)

Science (journal)

Peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the world's top academic journals.

Peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the world's top academic journals.

Cover of the first volume of the first series (discontinued 1882)
Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February–June 1883)

Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines.

First volume title page

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

First volume title page
Henry Oldenburg, founding editor and publisher
Hans Sloane by Stephen Slaughter, 1736
In 1787, Caroline Herschel became the first woman published in the journal and the only one in the 18th century. Poster at Publishing 350 Exhibit, 2015
Sir George Stokes

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

Science

Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge
The first diagram of an evolutionary tree made by Charles Darwin in 1837
First global view of the ozone hole in 1983, using a space telescope
Radio light image of M87* black hole, made by the earth-spanning Event Horizon Telescope array in 2019
Supply and demand curve in economics, crossing over at the optimal equilibrium
A steam turbine with the case opened, such turbines produce most of the electricity used today
A diagram variant of scientific method represented as an ongoing process
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
For Kuhn, the addition of epicycles in Ptolemaic astronomy was "normal science" within a paradigm, whereas the Copernican revolution was a paradigm shift.
Marie Curie was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes: Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911.
Picture of scientists in 200th anniversary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1900
Medal of the Nobel Prize, one of the most well-known science awards
Budget of NASA as percentage of United States federal budget, peaking at 4.4% in 1966 and slowly decline since
Dinosaur exhibit in the Houston Museum of Natural Science
300x300px

Scientific journals communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various other research institutions, serving as an archival record of science.

Fig.1: Wineglass model for IMRaD structure. The above scheme shows how to line up the information in IMRaD writing. It has two characteristics: the first is its top-bottom symmetric shape; the second is its change of width, meaning the top is wide, and it narrows towards the middle, and then widens again as it goes down toward the bottom. The first characteristic, the top-bottom symmetric shape, represents the symmetry of the story development. The second one, the change of width, represents the change in generality of the viewpoint.

IMRAD

Common organizational structure (a document format).

Common organizational structure (a document format).

Fig.1: Wineglass model for IMRaD structure. The above scheme shows how to line up the information in IMRaD writing. It has two characteristics: the first is its top-bottom symmetric shape; the second is its change of width, meaning the top is wide, and it narrows towards the middle, and then widens again as it goes down toward the bottom. The first characteristic, the top-bottom symmetric shape, represents the symmetry of the story development. The second one, the change of width, represents the change in generality of the viewpoint.

IMRaD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (often abbreviated PNAS or PNAS USA) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.