Scientific journal

Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
Title page of the first volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science

Periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.

- Scientific journal
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869

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First volume title page

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

First volume title page
Henry Oldenburg, founding editor and publisher
Hans Sloane by Stephen Slaughter, 1736
In 1787, Caroline Herschel became the first woman published in the journal and the only one in the 18th century. Poster at Publishing 350 Exhibit, 2015
Sir George Stokes

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (often abbreviated PNAS or PNAS USA) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.

Cover of the first volume of the first series (discontinued 1882)

Science (journal)

Peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the world's top academic journals.

Peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the world's top academic journals.

Cover of the first volume of the first series (discontinued 1882)
Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February–June 1883)

Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines.

A reviewer at the American National Institutes of Health evaluating a grant proposal

Physical Review Letters

A reviewer at the American National Institutes of Health evaluating a grant proposal

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

Cover of a 2016 issue of Nature featuring artistic representation of Proxima Centauri and its planet Proxima b

Nature (journal)

Cover of a 2016 issue of Nature featuring artistic representation of Proxima Centauri and its planet Proxima b
First title page, 4 November 1869
Skewed curve of citations per article in 2015 to Nature articles from 2013 to 2014.
Nature Materials, a specialized journal from Nature Research, 2018.

Nature is a British weekly scientific journal founded and based in London, England.

Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO.

Preprint

Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO.

In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.

Scientific and technical journal publications per million residents (2013)

Academic publishing

Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

Scientific and technical journal publications per million residents (2013)

Most scientific research is initially published in scientific journals and considered to be a primary source.

ArXiv

Open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not peer review.

Open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not peer review.

A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994, using the browser NCSA Mosaic. At the time, HTML forms were a new technology.
ArXiv's daily submission rate growth over 30 years since its beginning with topics labelled by the standard abbreviations used on arxiv.org
A screenshot of viewing a paper's abstract on arxiv.org in 2021

A majority of the e-prints are also submitted to journals for publication, but some work, including some very influential papers, remain purely as e-prints and are never published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Cover of first issue

African Invertebrates

Cover of first issue

African Invertebrates is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that covers the taxonomy, systematics, biogeography, ecology, conservation, and palaeontology of Afrotropical invertebrates, whether terrestrial, freshwater, or marine.

Open access logo, originally designed by Public Library of Science

Open access

Set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of access charges or other barriers.

Set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of access charges or other barriers.

Open access logo, originally designed by Public Library of Science
Venn diagram highlighting the key features of different types of open access in scholarly publishing.
Download rate for articles on Sci-Hub (black open access)
Licenses used by gold and hybrid OA journals in DOAJ
Article processing charges by gold OA journals in DOAJ
Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO
Length of embargo times for bronze Elsevier journals
Share of hybrid open access (OA) articles in the subscription journals of the top three publishers. JCR, Journal Citation Reports. Reproduced
Number of open access repositories listed in the Registry of Open Access Repositories

All researchers benefit from open access as no library can afford to subscribe to every scientific journal and most can only afford a small fraction of them – this is known as the "serials crisis".