A report on Scientific racism

Robert Boyle
Henry Home, Lord Kames
Homo monstrosus, or Patagonian giants, from Voyage au pole sud et dans l'Océanie (Voyage to the South Pole, and in Oceania), by Jules Dumont d'Urville
John Hunter. Painted by John Jackson in 1813, after an original by Sir Joshua Reynolds, who exhibited his painting at the Royal Academy in 1786.
Charles White
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Christoph Meiners
Georges Cuvier
Arthur Schopenhauer
A late-19th-century illustration by H. Strickland Constable shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic".
Portrait of Arthur de Gobineau by the Comtesse de la Tour, 1876
Charles Darwin in 1868
Herbert Hope Risley
Ernst Haeckel
Pieter Camper
Racialist differences: "a Negro head ... a Caucasian skull ... a Mongol head", Samuel George Morton, 1839
Illustration from Types of Mankind (1854), whose authors Josiah Clark Nott and George Robins Gliddon implied that "Negroes" were a creational rank between "Greeks" and chimpanzees
Cephalic Index. William Z. Ripley's European cephalic index map, The Races of Europe (1899).
Joseph Deniker
Madison Grant, creator of the "Nordic race" term
Samuel Cartwright, M.D.
Francis Galton in his later years
The Swedish State Institute for Racial Biology, founded in 1922, was the world's first government-funded institute performing research into racial biology. It was housed in what is now the Dean's house at Uppsala and was closed down in 1958.
Nazi poster promoting eugenics
Lothrop Stoddard (1883–1950)

Pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism , racial inferiority, or racial superiority.

- Scientific racism
Robert Boyle

81 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A nineteenth-century edition of the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon shows the Caucasian race (in shades of grayish blue-green) as comprising Aryans, Semites, and Hamites. Aryans are subdivided into European Aryans and Indo-Aryans (for those now called Indo-Iranians). Encyclopedias from this era reinforced European racial constructions.

Aryan race

17 links

Obsolete historical race concept that emerged in the late-19th century to describe people of Proto-Indo-European heritage as a racial grouping.

Obsolete historical race concept that emerged in the late-19th century to describe people of Proto-Indo-European heritage as a racial grouping.

A nineteenth-century edition of the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon shows the Caucasian race (in shades of grayish blue-green) as comprising Aryans, Semites, and Hamites. Aryans are subdivided into European Aryans and Indo-Aryans (for those now called Indo-Iranians). Encyclopedias from this era reinforced European racial constructions.

The term was adopted by various racist and antisemitic writers during the 19th century, including Arthur de Gobineau, Richard Wagner, and Houston Stewart Chamberlain, whose scientific racism influenced later Nazi racial ideology.

An early use of the word "racism" by Richard Henry Pratt in 1902: Association of races and classes is necessary to destroy racism and classism.

Racism

13 links

Belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to inherited attributes and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another.

Belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to inherited attributes and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another.

An early use of the word "racism" by Richard Henry Pratt in 1902: Association of races and classes is necessary to destroy racism and classism.
African-American university student Vivian Malone entering the University of Alabama in the U.S. to register for classes as one of the first African-American students to attend the institution. Until 1963, the university was racially segregated and African-American students were not allowed to attend.
In 1899 Uncle Sam (a personification of the United States) balances his new possessions which are depicted as savage children. The figures are Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Cuba, Philippines and "Ladrones" (the Mariana Islands).
A rally against school integration in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1959
A pro–Hiester Clymer racist political campaign poster from the 1866 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election
A sign on a racially segregated beach during the Apartheid era in South Africa, stating that the area is for the "sole use of members of the white race group"
A mass grave being dug for frozen bodies from the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, in which the U.S. Army killed 150 Lakota people, marking the end of the American Indian Wars
A 1917 anti-conscription propaganda leaflet imploring voters to "keep Australia white". A horde of Asians bearing a dragon flag is shown to the north.
The Book of Genesis's biblical curse on Canaan, which was often misinterpreted as a curse on his father Ham, was used to justify slavery in 19th century America.
A 16th-century illustration by Flemish Protestant Theodor de Bry for Las Casas's Brevisima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, depicting Spanish atrocities during the conquest of Cuba
Advertisement for Pears' Soap Caption reads, "Matchless for the complexion..." Illustration of 'before and after' use of soap by black child in the bath; soap washes off his dark complexion.
A late-19th-century illustration from Ireland from One or Two Neglected Points of View by H. Strickland Constable shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the "higher" "Anglo-Teutonic".
One in a series of posters attacking Radical Republicans on the issue of black suffrage, issued during the Pennsylvania gubernatorial election of 1866
Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to scrub the pavement, Vienna, March 1938
Eichmann's list of the Jewish population in Europe, drafted for the Wannsee Conference, held to ensure the cooperation of various levels of the Nazi government in the Final Solution
A drinking fountain from the mid-20th century labelled "Colored" with an African-American man drinking
A sign posted above a bar that reads "No beer sold to Indians [Native Americans]". Birney, Montana, 1941.
On 12 September 2011, Julius Malema, the youth leader of South Africa's ruling ANC, was found guilty of hate speech for singing "Shoot the Boer" at a number of public events.
The burnt out remains of Govinda's Indian Restaurant in Fiji, May 2000
Drawings from Josiah C. Nott and George Gliddon's Indigenous races of the earth (1857), which suggested black people ranked between white people and chimpanzees in terms of intelligence
Madison Grant's map, from 1916, charting the "present distribution of European races", with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and the Mediterraneans in yellow
Sociological model of ethnic and racial conflict
Separate "white" and "colored" entrances to a café in North Carolina, 1940
1935 Chart from Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws, defining which Germans were to be considered Jews and stripped of their citizenship. Germans with three or more Jewish grandparents were defined as Jews, Germans with one or two Jewish grandparents were deemed Mischling (mixed-blood).
19th century political cartoon: Uncle Sam kicks out the Chinaman, referring to the Chinese Exclusion Act

There have been attempts to legitimize racist beliefs through scientific means, such as scientific racism, which have been overwhelmingly shown to be unfounded.

Portrait "Redenção de Cam" (1895), showing a Brazilian family becoming "whiter" each generation.

Race (human categorization)

14 links

Categorization of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into groups generally viewed as distinct within a given society.

Categorization of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into groups generally viewed as distinct within a given society.

Portrait "Redenção de Cam" (1895), showing a Brazilian family becoming "whiter" each generation.

Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the discredited theories of scientific racism has contributed to race becoming increasingly seen as a largely pseudoscientific system of classification.

Flag of the Nazi Party, similar but not identical to the national flag of Nazi Germany (1933–1945), in which the swastika is slightly off-centred

Nazism

14 links

Ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany.

Ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany.

Flag of the Nazi Party, similar but not identical to the national flag of Nazi Germany (1933–1945), in which the swastika is slightly off-centred
Foreground, left to right: Führer Adolf Hitler; Hermann Göring; Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels; and Rudolf Hess
Nazis alongside members of the far-right reactionary and monarchist German National People's Party (DNVP) during the brief NSDAP–DNVP alliance in the Harzburg Front from 1931 to 1932
Hitler greets British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and Lord Halifax on the steps of the Berghof
Johann Gottlieb Fichte, considered one of the fathers of German nationalism
Georg Ritter von Schönerer, a major exponent of Pan-Germanism
Arthur de Gobineau, one of the key inventors of the theory of the "Aryan race"
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, whose book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century would prove to be a seminal work in the history of German nationalism
Oswald Spengler, a philosopher of history
The Marinebrigade Erhardt during the Kapp Putsch in Berlin, 1920 (the Marinebrigade Erhardt used the swastika as its symbol, as seen on their helmets and on the truck, which inspired the Nazi Party to adopt it as the movement's symbol)
The book Das Dritte Reich (1923), translated as "The Third Reich", by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck
Beginning of Lebensraum, the Nazi German expulsion of Poles from central Poland, 1939
The first trial of the Nazis in Europe, which took place in Kaunas in 1935. The accused claimed that the Klaipėda Region should be part of Germany, not Lithuania, and spread propaganda, prepared for an armed uprising.
Topographical map of Europe: the Nazi Party declared support for Drang nach Osten (expansion of Germany east to the Ural Mountains), that is shown on the upper right side of the map as a brown diagonal line
A "poster information" from the exhibition "Miracle of Life" in Berlin in 1935
A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in Buchenwald concentration camp
Obligations of Polish workers in Germany, warning them of the death penalty for any sexual relations between Germans and Poles
Homophobia: Berlin memorial to homosexual victims of the Holocaust: Totgeschlagen – Totgeschwiegen (Struck Dead – Hushed Up)
Members of the German Christians organisation celebrating Luther Day in Berlin in 1933, speech by Bishop Hossenfelder
Hitler in 1935 with Cesare Orsenigo, the Catholic Church's nuncio to Germany
Deutsches Volk–Deutsche Arbeit: German People, German Work (1934) – an example of reactionary modernism
Anti-communist, antisemitic propaganda poster in Nazi Germany
Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg, 1936

It incorporates fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and the use of eugenics into its creed.

Indigenous Races of the Earth (1857). Josiah Clark Nott and George Robins Gliddon implied that "Negroes" were a creational rank between "Greeks" and chimpanzees.

Polygenism

10 links

Theory of human origins which posits the view that the human races are of different origins .

Theory of human origins which posits the view that the human races are of different origins .

Indigenous Races of the Earth (1857). Josiah Clark Nott and George Robins Gliddon implied that "Negroes" were a creational rank between "Greeks" and chimpanzees.

The racial studies of Georges Cuvier, the French naturalist and zoologist, influenced scientific polygenism and scientific racism.

Henry Keane's Man, Past and Present (1899) shows a Dane as an example of the Nordic type

Nordic race

11 links

Racial concept which originated in 19th century anthropology.

Racial concept which originated in 19th century anthropology.

Henry Keane's Man, Past and Present (1899) shows a Dane as an example of the Nordic type
"Expansion of the Pre-Teutonic Nordics" — Map from The Passing of the Great Race by Madison Grant showing early hypothesized migrations of Nordic peoples.
"Expansion of the Teutonic Nordics and Slavic Alpines" — Map from Passing of the Great Race by Madison Grant showing the expansion of the Nordics and Alpines in Europe from the 1st century BC to the 11th century AD.
In 1975, a mainstream Polish encyclopedia used this image as example of the "Nordic race"

German anthropologist Rudolf Virchow attacked the claim following a study of craniometry, which gave surprising results according to contemporary scientific racist theories on the "Aryan race".

Madison Grant in the early 1920s

Madison Grant

9 links

Madison Grant in the early 1920s
Ota Benga was exhibited in the Monkey House of the Bronx Zoo, New York in 1906
Title page of Grant's book The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
"Maximum Expansion of Alpines" (3000 to 1800 BC)—Map from Passing of the Great Race showing the "essentially peasant" Alpine migrations into Europe.
"Expansion of the Pre-Teutonic Nordics" (1800 to 100 BC)—Early Nordic influence spreading over the continent.
"Expansion of the Teutonic Nordics and Slavic Alpines" (100 BC to 1100 AD)—Further Nordic expansion, as well as the Alpines.
"Present Distribution of the European Races" (1916)—Grant's vision of the status quo, with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and the Mediterraneans in yellow.
Grant in the 1920s.
California State Parks removed Grant's Marker at Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park in June 2021.

Madison Grant (November 19, 1865 – May 30, 1937) was an American lawyer, anthropologist, writer, and zoologist known primarily for his work as a eugenicist and conservationist, an advocate of scientific racism, and as one of the leading thinkers and activists of the Progressive Era.

1876 portrait of Gobineau by the Comtesse de la Tour

Arthur de Gobineau

7 links

1876 portrait of Gobineau by the Comtesse de la Tour
The Orientalist tales of Antoine Galland (pictured) had a strong influence on Gobineau in his youth.
Portrait of Gobineau's wife, Clémence, by Ary Scheffer (1850)
Cover of the original edition of An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
Josiah C. Nott
Henry Hotze
French archaeologist Paul-Émile Botta (pictured) regarded Gobineau's Persian work as nonsense.
An illustration from Gobineau's novel Nouvelle Asiatiques, published while he was in Sweden. The book reflected his long-standing interest in Persia and the Orient.
The German composer Richard Wagner, whom Gobineau befriended late in his life, shown in a photograph taken in Paris, 1867
Völker Europas, wahrt eure heiligsten Güter ("Peoples of Europe, guard your dearest goods," 1895) The Yellow Peril painting. Much of the imagery appears drawn from Gobineau's anti-Asian writings, via his friend Prince Philip von Eulenburg who helped with turning Wilhelm II's sketch into the painting.
Oliveira Viana (pictured), a Brazilian minister, was highly influenced by Gobineau's racist beliefs

Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (14 July 1816 – 13 October 1882) was a French aristocrat who is best known for helping to legitimise racism by the use of scientific racist theory and "racial demography", and for developing the theory of the Aryan master race.

Hippocrates of Kos

Historical race concepts

5 links

Extensive history in Europe and the Americas.

Extensive history in Europe and the Americas.

Hippocrates of Kos
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Blumenbach's five races
Engraving depicting what was considered "The Types of Races of Men" by the author.
Gobineau in 1876
Huxley's map of racial categories from On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind (1870). 1: Bushmen
2: Negroes
3: Negritoes
4: Melanochroi (including Hamites and Moors)
5: Australoids
6: Xanthochroi
7: Polynesians
8: Mongoloids A
8: Mongoloids B
8: Mongoloids C
9: Esquimaux
Huxley states: 'It is to the Xanthochroi and Melanochroi, taken together, that the absurd denomination of "Caucasian" is usually applied'. He also indicates that he has omitted certain areas with complex ethnic compositions that do not fit into his racial paradigm, including much of the Horn of Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Huxley's Melanochroi eventually comprised various other dark Caucasoid populations, including the Hamites and Moors.

Race acquired its modern meaning in the field of physical anthropology through scientific racism starting in the 19th century.

Arno Breker's 1939 neoclassical sculpture Die Partei (The Party), which flanked one of the entrances to the Albert Speer-designed Reich Chancellery in Berlin. The sculpture emphasizes what the Nazis considered to be desirable "Nordic" racial characteristics.

Master race

8 links

Concept in Nazi ideology in which the putative "Aryan race" is deemed the pinnacle of human racial hierarchy.

Concept in Nazi ideology in which the putative "Aryan race" is deemed the pinnacle of human racial hierarchy.

Arno Breker's 1939 neoclassical sculpture Die Partei (The Party), which flanked one of the entrances to the Albert Speer-designed Reich Chancellery in Berlin. The sculpture emphasizes what the Nazis considered to be desirable "Nordic" racial characteristics.
German warning in Nazi-occupied Poland 1939 – "No entrance for Poles!"
Werner Goldberg, who was part Jewish but blonde and blue-eyed, was used in Nazi recruitment posters as "The Ideal German Soldier."

Today, this view is regarded as a form of scientific racism and contradicts the belief in racial equality by advocating the view that one race is superior to all other races.