Scientific racism

biological racismscientific racistrace scienceracial scienceracial biologyracial anthropologyracial scientistracial theoriesscientific racistspseudo-scientific racism
Scientific racism is a pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.wikipedia
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Racism

racistracial prejudiceracial discrimination
Scientific racism is a pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
These early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions; the collective endeavors to adequately define and form hypotheses about racial differences are generally termed scientific racism, though this term is a misnomer, due to the lack of any actual science backing the claims.

Craniometry

craniometriccranial measurementscraniometrical
Scientific racism employs anthropology (notably physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, that might be asserted to be superior or inferior.
Theories attempting to scientifically justify the segregation of society based on race became popular at this time, one of their prominent figures being Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854–1936), who divided humanity into various, hierarchized, different "races", spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic" (from the Ancient Greek kephalê, head, and dolikhos, long and thin), to the "brachycephalic" (short and broad-headed) race.

Mankind Quarterly

The Mankind QuarterlyMankind
Publications such as the Mankind Quarterly, founded explicitly as a "race-conscious" journal, are generally regarded as platforms of scientific racism for publishing articles on fringe interpretations of human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, language, mythology, archaeology, and race subjects.
Mankind Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal that has been described as a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment" and a "white supremacist journal", "scientific racism's keepers of the flame", a journal with a "racist orientation" and an "infamous racist journal", and a "journal of 'scientific racism'".

Monogenism

monogenistmonogenesisenvironmentalist monogenism
During the Age of Enlightenment (an era from the 1650s to the 1780s), concepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular, though they would only be systematized epistemologically during the 19th century. The French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) and the German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) were believers in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin.
This issue was hotly debated in the Western world in the nineteenth century, as the assumptions of scientific racism came under scrutiny both from religious groups and in the light of developments in the life sciences and human science.

Race and intelligence

racial differences in intelligenceblack-white differences on tests of cognitive abilityintellectually inferior
Critics argue that such works postulate racist conclusions unsupported by available evidence such as a connection between race and intelligence.
Other researchers have criticized the Pioneer Fund for promoting scientific racism, eugenics and white supremacy.

White people

whitewhitesCaucasian
Meiners split mankind into two divisions, which he labelled the "beautiful white race" and the "ugly black race".
It was only during the 19th century that this vague category was transformed in a quasi-scientific system of race and skin color relations.

Arthur de Gobineau

GobineauJoseph Arthur de GobineauArthur Gobineau
The French aristocrat and writer Arthur de Gobineau (1816–1882), is best known for his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–55) which proposed three human races (black, white and yellow) were natural barriers and claimed that race mixing would lead to the collapse of culture and civilization.
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (14 July 1816 – 13 October 1882) was a French aristocrat who is best known for helping to legitimise racism by the use of scientific racist theory and "racial demography" and for developing the theory of the Aryan master race.

Race (human categorization)

raceracialraces
The extended wording on the title page, which adds by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, uses the general term "races" as an alternative for "varieties" and does not carry the modern connotation of human races.
Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic.

Ethnic groups in Europe

EuropeanEuropeansEuropean ethnic groups
In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in terms of scientific racism, and the ethnic groups of Europe were grouped into a number of "races", Mediterranean, Alpine and Nordic, all part of a larger "Caucasian" group.

An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races

An Essay on the Inequality of Human RacesEssai sur l'inégalité des races humainesThe Inequality of Human Races
The French aristocrat and writer Arthur de Gobineau (1816–1882), is best known for his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–55) which proposed three human races (black, white and yellow) were natural barriers and claimed that race mixing would lead to the collapse of culture and civilization.
It is today considered to be one of the earliest examples of scientific racism.

Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
At the 19th century's end, scientific racism conflated Græco–Roman eugenicism with Francis Galton's concept of voluntary eugenics to produce a form of coercive, anti-immigrant government programs influenced by other socio-political discourses and events.
In modern usage, the term Eugenics has close ties to scientific racism and white supremacism.

Herbert Hope Risley

H. H. RisleySir Herbert Hope RisleyHerbert Risley
As an exponent of race science, Colonial administrator Herbert Hope Risley (1851–1911) used the ratio of the width of a nose to its height to divide Indian people into Aryan and Dravidian races, as well as seven castes.
As an exponent of scientific racism, he used the ratio of the width of a nose to its height to divide Indians into Aryan and Dravidian races, as well as seven castes.

The Race Question

statement on racestatements on raceThe 1950 race statement
After the end of World War II, scientific racism in theory and action was formally denounced, especially in UNESCO's early antiracist statement "The Race Question" (1950): "The biological fact of race and the myth of 'race' should be distinguished. For all practical social purposes 'race' is not so much a biological phenomenon as a social myth. The myth of 'race' has created an enormous amount of human and social damage. In recent years, it has taken a heavy toll in human lives, and caused untold suffering".
The first version did not reject the idea of race biology, a biological basis to racial categories.

Polygenism

polygenistpolygenesispolygenic
During the Age of Enlightenment (an era from the 1650s to the 1780s), concepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular, though they would only be systematized epistemologically during the 19th century.
The racial studies of Georges Cuvier, the French naturalist and zoologist, influenced scientific polygenism and scientific racism.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

BlumenbachJohann BlumenbachJ. F. Blumenbach
The French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) and the German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) were believers in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin.
He did not consider his "degenerative hypothesis" as racist and sharply criticized Christoph Meiners, an early practitioner of scientific racialism, as well as Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, who concluded from autopsies that Africans were an inferior race.

Master race

HerrenvolkAryansuperior race
They played a key role in the master race theory of Nazism.
Today, this view is regarded as a form of scientific racism because it contradicts the belief in racial equality by positing the view that one race is superior to all other races.

Nazism

NaziNazisNational Socialism
They played a key role in the master race theory of Nazism. In this book, he classified humanity into various, hierarchized races, spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic", to the "brachycephalic", "mediocre and inert" race, best represented by Southern European, Catholic peasants". Between these, Vacher de Lapouge identified the "Homo europaeus" (Teutonic, Protestant, etc.), the "Homo alpinus" (Auvergnat, Turkish, etc.), and finally the "Homo mediterraneus" (Neapolitan, Andalus, etc.) Jews were brachycephalic like the Aryans, according to Lapouge; but exactly for this reason he considered them to be dangerous; they were the only group, he thought, threatening to displace the Aryan aristocracy. Vacher de Lapouge became one of the leading inspirators of Nazi antisemitism and Nazi racist ideology.
Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but also incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and eugenics into its creed.

Racial policy of Nazi Germany

Nazi racial policiesNazi racial policyracial policies
In this book, he classified humanity into various, hierarchized races, spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic", to the "brachycephalic", "mediocre and inert" race, best represented by Southern European, Catholic peasants". Between these, Vacher de Lapouge identified the "Homo europaeus" (Teutonic, Protestant, etc.), the "Homo alpinus" (Auvergnat, Turkish, etc.), and finally the "Homo mediterraneus" (Neapolitan, Andalus, etc.) Jews were brachycephalic like the Aryans, according to Lapouge; but exactly for this reason he considered them to be dangerous; they were the only group, he thought, threatening to displace the Aryan aristocracy. Vacher de Lapouge became one of the leading inspirators of Nazi antisemitism and Nazi racist ideology.
The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany (1933–45) based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy.

White supremacy

white supremacistwhite supremacistswhite supremacism
Vacher de Lapouge's classification was mirrored in William Z. Ripley in The Races of Europe (1899), a book which had a large influence on American white supremacism.
White supremacy has roots in scientific racism, and it often relies on pseudoscientific arguments.

The Mismeasure of Man

In The Mismeasure of Man (1981), the historian of science Stephen Jay Gould argued that Samuel Morton had falsified the craniometric data, perhaps inadvertently over-packing some skulls, to so produce results that would legitimize the racist presumptions he was attempting to prove.
The Mismeasure of Man is a critical analysis of the early works of scientific racism which promoted "the theory ofunitary, innate, linearly rankable intelligence"—such as craniometry, the measurement of skull volume and its relation to intellectual faculties.

Madison Grant

Grantthis man Goddard
He was an important influence of the American eugenist Madison Grant.
As a eugenicist, Grant was the author of The Passing of the Great Race, a work espousing scientific racism, and played an active role in crafting strong immigration restriction and anti-miscegenation laws in the United States.

William Z. Ripley

RipleyWilliam RipleyWilliam Zebina Ripley
Vacher de Lapouge's classification was mirrored in William Z. Ripley in The Races of Europe (1899), a book which had a large influence on American white supremacism.
His work of racial anthropology was later taken up by racial physical anthropologists, eugenicists, and white supremacists and was considered a valid academic work at the time, although today it is considered to be a prime example of scientific racism.

The Bell Curve

Bell CurveThe Bell Curve WarsThe Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life
The term "scientific racism" is generally used pejoratively as applied to more modern theories, as in The Bell Curve (1994).
Much of the work referenced by The Bell Curve was funded by the Pioneer Fund, which aims to advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences, and has been accused of promoting scientific racism.

Pseudoscience

pseudoscientificpseudo-scientificpseudo-science
Scientific racism is a pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.

Historical race concepts

Historical definitions of raceraceraces
Scientific racism employs anthropology (notably physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, that might be asserted to be superior or inferior.