Scientist

scientistsresearch scientistsciencescientificDr.rer.mil.natural and social science professionalsResearch scientistsresearcherSenior Research Scientistaeronautical engineer
A scientist is someone who conducts scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest.wikipedia
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William Whewell

WhewellDr. WhewellMr W. Whewell
It was not until the 19th century that the term scientist came into regular use after it was coined by the theologian, philosopher, and historian of science William Whewell in 1833, to describe the noted polymath Mary Somerville.
Rev Dr William Whewell DD HFRSE (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
In modern times, many scientists have advanced degrees in an area of science and pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry, government, and nonprofit environments.
The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape; along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science."

Government scientist

governmentgovernmental scientific advisor
In modern times, many scientists have advanced degrees in an area of science and pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry, government, and nonprofit environments.
A government scientist is a scientist employed by a country's government, either in a research-driven job (for example J. Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan Project), or for another role that requires scientific training and methods.

History of science in classical antiquity

ancient sciencescienceGreek
Knowledge about nature in classical antiquity was pursued by many kinds of scholars.
The ancient peoples who are considered the first scientists may have thought of themselves as natural philosophers, as practitioners of a skilled profession (for example, physicians), or as followers of a religious tradition (for example, temple healers).

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianRene Descartes
Descartes was not only a pioneer of analytic geometry but formulated a theory of mechanics and advanced ideas about the origins of animal movement and perception.
René Descartes (, also, ; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: Cartesian ; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

Physicist

physicistsresearch physicistengineer and physicist
Vision interested the physicists Young and Helmholtz, who also studied optics, hearing and music.
A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

Doctor of Philosophy

Ph.D.PhDPh.D
Upon completion, they would normally attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Medicine (MD), Doctor of Engineering (DEng), or even a dual doctoral degree (e.g., MD, PhD).
The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields.

Chemist

chemistsresearch chemistchemical
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chemist from Medieval Latin alchimista ) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.

Geologist

geologistsgeoscientistgeoscientists
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them.

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
Scientists include experimentalists who mainly perform experiments to test hypotheses, and theoreticians who mainly develop models to explain existing data and predict new results.
Francis Bacon (1561–1626), an English philosopher and scientist active in the 17th century, became an influential supporter of experimental science in the English renaissance.

Astronomer

astronomersastrophysicistprofessional astronomers
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

Terminal degree

terminalhighest academic degreeadvanced degrees
In modern times, many scientists have advanced degrees in an area of science and pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry, government, and nonprofit environments.

Biologist

biologistsScientistbiological scientist
A biologist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field.

Neuroscientist

neurobiologistneuroscientistsneuro-scientist
A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and especially their association with behaviour and learning.

Microbiologist

microbiologistsgeomicrobiologistmedical microbiologists
A microbiologist (from Greek μῑκρος) is a scientist who studies microscopic life forms and processes.

Geneticist

geneticistsclinical geneticistgenetic scientist
A geneticist can be employed as a scientist or lecturer.

Citizen science

citizen scientistscitizen scientistcitizen-science
Citizen science (CS; also known as community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, or online citizen science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur (or nonprofessional) scientists.

Independent scientist

gentleman scientistamateur scientistgentleman
An independent scientist (modern gender-neutral term historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body.

Computational scientist

This person is usually a scientist, a statistician, an Applied mathematician, or an engineer who applies high-performance computing and sometimes cloud computing in different ways to advance the state-of-the-art in their respective applied disciplines; physics, chemistry, social sciences and so forth.

Mad scientist

mad doctorevil scientistmad scientists
Mad scientist (also mad doctor or mad professor) is a stock character of a scientist who is described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, taboo or hubristic nature of their experiments.

History of science

historian of sciencemodern sciencehistory
The ancient people who are considered the first scientists may have thought of themselves as natural philosophers, as practitioners of a skilled profession (for example, physicians), or as followers of a religious tradition (for example, temple healers).

Intellectual

man of letterspublic intellectualintellectuals
In "The Intellectuals and Socialism" (1949), the British economist Friedrich Hayek said that "journalists, teachers, ministers, lecturers, publicists, radio commentators, writers of fiction, cartoonists, and artists" are the intellectual social class whose function is to communicate the complex and specialized knowledge of the scientist to the general public.

Pseudoscience

pseudoscientificpseudo-scientificpseudo-science
The boundary between science and pseudoscience is disputed and difficult to determine analytically, even after more than a century of study by philosophers of science and scientists, and despite some basic agreements on the fundamentals of the scientific method.