A report on Scientist

Wilhelm Röntgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of X-rays.
"No one in the history of civilization has shaped our understanding of science and natural philosophy more than the great Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384-322 BC), who exerted a profound and pervasive influence for more than two thousand years" —Gary B. Ferngren
Alessandro Volta, the inventor of the electrical battery and discoverer of methane, is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists in history.
Francesco Redi, referred to as the "father of modern parasitology", is the founder of experimental biology.
Mary Somerville, for whom the word "scientist" was coined.
Physicist Albert Einstein developed the general theory of relativity and made many substantial contributions to physics.
Physicist Enrico Fermi is credited with the creation of the world's first atomic bomb and nuclear reactor.
Atomic physicist Niels Bohr made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory.
Marine Biologist Rachel Carson launched the 20th century environmental movement.

Person who conducts scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest.

- Scientist
Wilhelm Röntgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of X-rays.

13 related topics with Alpha

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Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

Science

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Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge
The first diagram of an evolutionary tree made by Charles Darwin in 1837
First global view of the ozone hole in 1983, using a space telescope
Radio light image of M87* black hole, made by the earth-spanning Event Horizon Telescope array in 2019
Supply and demand curve in economics, crossing over at the optimal equilibrium
A steam turbine with the case opened, such turbines produce most of the electricity used today
A diagram variant of scientific method represented as an ongoing process
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
For Kuhn, the addition of epicycles in Ptolemaic astronomy was "normal science" within a paradigm, whereas the Copernican revolution was a paradigm shift.
Marie Curie was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes: Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911.
Picture of scientists in 200th anniversary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1900
Medal of the Nobel Prize, one of the most well-known science awards
Budget of NASA as percentage of United States federal budget, peaking at 4.4% in 1966 and slowly decline since
Dinosaur exhibit in the Houston Museum of Natural Science
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New knowledge in science is advanced by research from scientists who are motivated by curiosity about the world and a desire to solve problems.

William Whewell

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William Whewell, c. 1860s
Part of Whewell's cotidal chart of 1836 showing the predicted no-tide area in the southern North Sea
Statue of Whewell by Thomas Woolner in Trinity College Chapel, Cambridge
Portrait by James Lonsdale

William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

Portrait after Frans Hals

René Descartes

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Portrait after Frans Hals
The house where Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine
Graduation registry for Descartes at the University of Poitiers, 1616
In Amsterdam, Descartes lived at Westermarkt 6 (Maison Descartes, left).
René Descartes at work
L'homme (1664)
Cover of Meditations
A Cartesian coordinates graph, using his invented x and y axes
Handwritten letter by Descartes, December 1638
Principia philosophiae, 1644

René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650 ) was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and lay Catholic who invented analytic geometry, linking the previously separate fields of geometry and algebra.

Albert Einstein, a key theoretical physicist in the 20th century who developed the theory of relativity and parts of early quantum theory.

Physicist

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Albert Einstein, a key theoretical physicist in the 20th century who developed the theory of relativity and parts of early quantum theory.
In an 18th-century experiment in "natural philosophy" (later to be called "physics") English scientist Francis Hauksbee works with an early electrostatic generator.
Experimental physicists at work at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä (Finland).

A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

Portrait by Christoph Bernhard Francke, 1695

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

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Portrait by Christoph Bernhard Francke, 1695
Engraving of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Stepped reckoner
Leibniz's correspondence, papers and notes from 1669 to 1704, National Library of Poland.
A page from Leibniz's manuscript of the Monadology
A diagram of I Ching hexagrams sent to Leibniz from Joachim Bouvet. The Arabic numerals were added by Leibniz.
Leibnizstrasse street sign Berlin
Commercium philosophicum et mathematicum (1745), a collection of letters between Leibnitz and Johann Bernoulli

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665

Biology

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Scientific study of life.

Scientific study of life.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665
In 1842, Charles Darwin penned his first sketch of On the Origin of Species.
In the Bohr model of an atom, electrons (blue dot) orbit around an atomic nucleus (red-filled circle) in specific atomic orbitals (grey empty circles).
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Organic compounds such as glucose are vital to organisms.
A phospholipid bilayer consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, with the hydrophilic tails facing inwards and the hydrophobic heads facing outwards.
The (a) primary, (b) secondary, (c) tertiary, and (d) quaternary structures of a hemoglobin protein
Structure of an animal cell depicting various organelles
Structure of a plant cell
Example of an enzyme-catalysed exothermic reaction
Respiration in a eukaryotic cell
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
In meiosis, the chromosomes duplicate and the homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis I. The daughter cells divide again in meiosis II to form haploid gametes.
Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b) blossoms
Bases lie between two spiraling DNA strands.
The extended central dogma of molecular biology includes all the processes involved in the flow of genetic information.
Regulation of various stages of gene expression
Composition of the human genome
Construction of recombinant DNA, in which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted into a plasmid vector
Model of concentration gradient building up; fine yellow-orange outlines are cell boundaries.
Natural selection for darker traits
Comparison of allopatric, peripatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation
Bacteria – Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (-=1 Micrometer)
Archaea – Halobacteria
Diversity of protists
Diversity of plants
Diversity of fungi. Clockwise from top left: Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete; Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete; bread covered in mold; chytrid; Aspergillus conidiophore.
Bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall
Root and shoot systems in a eudicot
The xylem (blue) transports water and minerals from the roots upwards whereas the phloem (orange) transports carbohydrates between organs.
Reproduction and development in sporophytes
Negative feedback is necessary for maintaining homeostasis such as keeping body temperature constant.
Diffusion of water and ions in and out of a freshwater fish
Different digestive systems in marine fishes
Respiratory system in a bird
Circulatory systems in arthropods, fish, reptiles, and birds/mammals
Asynchronous muscles power flight in most insects. a: Wings b: Wing joint c: Dorsoventral muscles power upstrokes d: Dorsolongitudinal muscles power downstrokes.
Mouse pyramidal neurons (green) and GABAergic neurons (red)
Sexual reproduction in dragonflies
Cleavage in zebrafish embryo
Processes in the primary immune response
Brood parasites, such as the cuckoo, provide a supernormal stimulus to the parenting species.
Terrestrial biomes are shaped by temperature and precipitation.
Reaching carrying capacity through a logistic growth curve
A (a) trophic pyramid and a (b) simplified food web. The trophic pyramid represents the biomass at each level.
Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. Effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity, are not included.
Efforts are made to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia, without affecting visitors' access.

Like other scientists, biologists use the scientific method to make observations, pose questions, generate hypotheses, perform experiments, and form conclusions about the world around them.

A group of new PhD graduates with their professors

Doctor of Philosophy

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Most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study.

Most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study.

A group of new PhD graduates with their professors
A new PhD graduate from the University of Birmingham, wearing a doctor's bonnet, shakes hands with the Chancellor
A Yale University PhD diploma from 1861.
A South African PhD graduate (on right, wearing ceremonial gown)
PhD gown, University of Cambridge
PhD SPbSU certificate

The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields.

Terminal degree

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University degree that can signify one of two outcomes.

University degree that can signify one of two outcomes.

Scientist (BSc, BS)

Government scientist

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A government scientist is a scientist employed by a country's government, either in a research-driven job (for example J. Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan Project), or for another role that requires scientific training and methods.

The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion as depicted in the Harmonia Macrocosmica (1661).

Science in classical antiquity

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Science in classical antiquity encompasses inquiries into the workings of the world or universe aimed at both practical goals (e.g., establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses) as well as more abstract investigations belonging to natural philosophy.

Science in classical antiquity encompasses inquiries into the workings of the world or universe aimed at both practical goals (e.g., establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses) as well as more abstract investigations belonging to natural philosophy.

The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion as depicted in the Harmonia Macrocosmica (1661).
The physician Hippocrates, known as the "Father of Modern Medicine"
The four classical elements (fire, air, water, earth) of Empedocles illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed.
A mosaic depicting Plato's Academy, from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus in Pompeii (1st century AD).
Diagram of the Antikythera mechanism, an analog astronomical calculator
Apollonius wrote a comprehensive study of conic sections in the Conics.
A 19th-century portrait of Pliny the Elder
George Trebizond's Latin translation of Ptolemy's Almagest (c. 1451)

Those who are now considered as the first scientists may have thought of themselves as natural philosophers, as practitioners of a skilled profession (e.g., physicians), or as followers of a religious tradition (e.g., temple healers).