Scotland

The exposed interior of a house at Skara Brae
The Wallace Monument commemorates William Wallace, the 13th-century Scottish hero.
James VI succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.
David Morier's depiction of the Battle of Culloden - An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745
The National Monument of Scotland on Calton Hill in Edinburgh is the national memorial to Scottish soldiers lost in the Napoleonic Wars
Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels helped define Scottish identity in the 19th century
The Disruption Assembly; painted by David Octavius Hill
Deer stalkers on Glenfeshie Estate spying with monoculars, ca. 1858
Douglas Haig and Ferdinand Foch inspecting the Gordon Highlanders, 1918
Rudolf Hess, Deputy Führer of Nazi Germany, crashed his plane at Bonnyton Moor in the Scottish central belt in an attempt to make peace.
Royal Scots with a captured Japanese Hinomaru Yosegaki flag, Burma, 1945
The official reconvening of the Scottish Parliament in July 1999 with Donald Dewar, then first minister of Scotland (left) with Queen Elizabeth II (centre) and Presiding Officer Sir David Steel (right)
Iona in the Inner Hebrides
Gruinard Bay
The Scottish Highlands, located in the north and west of Scotland
Tiree in the Inner Hebrides is one of the sunniest locations in Scotland
A mountain hare (Lepus timidus) in Findhorn Valley, May 2004
Red deer stag with velvet antlers in Glen Torridon
Scotland population cartogram. The size of councils is in proportion to their population.
Iona Abbey, an early centre of Christianity in Scotland
Scotland has been a member of the British-Irish Council since 1999
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon meets President of the United States Joe Biden and President of Malawi Lazarus Chakwera, November 2021
First Minister Sturgeon meets with Katrín Jakobsdóttir, Prime Minister of Iceland, 2019
First Minister Henry McLeish meets US President George W. Bush in the Oval Office of the White House, April 2001
Donald Dewar, the first First Minister of Scotland, is often regarded as the Father of the Nation
The president of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker and first minister Nicola Sturgeon
Glasgow City Chambers, seat of Glasgow City Council
The High Court of Justiciary building, Edinburgh, the supreme criminal court in Scotland
NHS Scotland's Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow. It is the largest hospital campus in Europe.
An oil platform in the North Sea
Edinburgh was the 13th-largest financial centre in the world in 2020.
The Bank of Scotland has its headquarters in Edinburgh and is one of the oldest operating banks in the world.
A Challenger 2 main battle tank of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards
Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring (D32) was constructed at BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships, Glasgow
The Royal Arms of Scotland
The thistle, the national emblem of Scotland
Cock-a-leekie soup
Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the first working television system on 26 January 1926.
Scottish Television (STV) HQ in Glasgow
Scotland national football team in competition against Russia, 2019
The Old Course at St Andrews where golf originates from
Whitelee Wind Farm is the largest onshore wind farm on the British Isles.
The Forth Bridge in Edinburgh, a well-known structure in Scottish rail and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Air Traffic Control tower of Edinburgh Airport, Scotland's busiest airport by passenger numbers
Domestic rail services are operated by ScotRail.
The M8 motorway is the busiest motorway in Scotland, running from Glasgow to Edinburgh
A Caledonian MacBrayne ferry arriving in Castlebay, Barra

Country that is part of the United Kingdom.

- Scotland

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Glasgow

Shipping on the Clyde, Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881
The 1919 Battle of George Square
Sauchiehall Street during World War II (1943)
Glasgow City Chambers, located on George Square, is the headquarters of Glasgow City Council and the seat of local government in the city, circa 1900.
Councillor Susan Aitken, the leader of Glasgow City Council since 2017
Panorama over Glasgow's South Side and West End from Queen's Park, looking north west. Left of centre can be seen the Clyde Arc bridge at Finnieston, while beyond is the tower of the University of Glasgow, with the Campsie Fells in the distance on the right.
Greater Glasgow population density map
Areas of Glasgow. Click to enlarge.
The Clyde Arc, also known locally as the "Squinty Bridge"
Looking down Buchanan Street towards St Enoch subway station
The Tolbooth Steeple dominates Glasgow Cross and marks the east side of the Merchant City.
The International Financial Services District alongside the River Clyde
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is Glasgow's premier museum and art gallery, housing one of Europe's best civic art collections.
People's Palace museum on Glasgow Green
The Doulton Fountain in Glasgow Green
Pacific Quay sits within the south side of Glasgow, and is home to some of the city's largest businesses and employers.
Ruchill Church, seen from the Forth and Clyde Canal
Established by wealthy tobacco merchant Stephen Mitchell, the Mitchell Library is now one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe
The OVO Hydro arena is the second-busiest arena venue in the world.
View of the entrance to the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow is home to the HQ of BBC Scotland in Pacific Quay
STV has its HQ located in Glasgow
Glasgow Cathedral marks the site where Saint Mungo built his church and established Glasgow
RMS Queen Elizabeth 2, better known as the QE2, was built in Glasgow at the John Brown Shipyard on the River Clyde.
is largely regarded as a sign of Glaswegian powerhouse shipbuilding industry.
A view towards the city centre of Glasgow, home to some of Scotland's largest industries and employers
Glasgow Central station is the northern terminus of the West Coast Main Line.
Glasgow Queen Street station is the main connection for rail services to Edinburgh and the Scottish Highlands.
Buchanan Bus Station is the main bus terminal within Glasgow.
The M8, which crosses the Clyde over the Kingston Bridge, is Scotland's busiest motorway.
Typical red sandstone Glasgow terrace
20th-century-style houses within the neighbourhood of Hillsborough Road
Queen Elizabeth University Hospital is the largest hospital campus in Europe.
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and among the world's top 100 universities.
Glasgow is home to Hampden Park, home of the Scotland national football team.
Emirates Arena in Glasgow, one of the designated stadiums constructed for the 2014 Commonwealth Games
The aftermath of the 2007 Glasgow Airport attack, the first terrorist attack to take place in Scotland since the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie in 1988

Glasgow (Glesca or Glesga; Glaschu) is the most populous city in Scotland and the fourth-most populous city in the United Kingdom, as well as being the 27th largest city by population in Europe.

Greek geographer, Pytheas of Massalia

Great Britain

Island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

Island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

Greek geographer, Pytheas of Massalia
A 1490 Italian reconstruction of the relevant map of Ptolemy who combined the lines of roads and of the coasting expeditions during the first century of Roman occupation. Two great faults, however, are an eastward-projecting Scotland and none of Ireland seen to be at the same latitude of Wales, which may have been if Ptolemy used Pytheas' measurements of latitude. Whether he did so is a much debated issue. This "copy" appears in blue below.
Political definition of Great Britain ( dark green ) – in Europe ( green & dark grey ) – in the United Kingdom ( green )
Prima Europe tabula. A "copy" of Ptolemy's 2nd-century map of Roman Britain. See notes to image above.
View of Britain's coast from Cap Gris-Nez in northern France
The robin is popularly known as "Britain's favourite bird".
Heather growing wild in the Highlands at Dornoch.
Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Church of England – the island's largest denomination
Glasgow Cathedral, a meeting place of the Church of Scotland

The term "Great Britain" is often used to refer to England, Scotland and Wales, including their component adjoining islands.

Map of the Inner and Outer Hebrides

List of islands of Scotland

List of islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain.

List of islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain.

Map of the Inner and Outer Hebrides
Eilean Donan castle
Abandoned houses on Fuaigh Mòr, which had a population of 46 prior to being cleared
Portree on Skye, an island where the population has grown in recent decades
Orkney aerial photomap
The Shetland archipelago
Bressay Lighthouse at Kirkabister Ness, Shetland
The Old Man of Hoy, Orkney, a 137-metre (450 ft) sea stack of red sandstone
Tobermory harbour, Isle of Mull
The cliffs of Creag na Bruaich, Raasay
Dhu Heartach Lighthouse, During Construction by Sam Bough (1822-1878)
Fingal's Cave, Staffa
Kisimul Castle, Barra
Ailsa Craig from the South Ayrshire coast
Iona Abbey
Shiant Islands
Muckle Flugga lighthouse, Shetland
Two of the Paps of Jura. Photo by John Shaw.
The Earl's Palace, Birsay, Orkney
The cliffs of Eshaness, North Mainland, Shetland
The Bass Rock from Tantallon Castle
MV Isle of Lewis in The Minch
Sula Sgeir from the south west
Stornoway harbour, Lewis
Fair Isle cliffs
Callanish Standing Stones, Lewis
Machair at Balephuil Bay, Tiree
The east coast of Mousa towards the Peerie Bard
Clisham, Harris
An Sgurr, Eigg
The rock pinnacles of the Quiraing, Skye
Loch Lomond from Beinn Dubh and Creag an t-Seilich
Pladda
Rockall
Boreray, Stac Lee, and Stac an Armin (left) from the heights of Conachair, St Kilda
Ruined ecclesiastical buildings remain visible on Eilean Chaluim Chille, near Kilmuir, Skye
Skye Bridge, Isle of Skye
Inchgarvie can be seen just below the Forth Bridge.
The stone causeway to Danna
Churchill Barrier 1, blocking Kirk Sound
A beach on Oronsay by Colonsay, looking towards the Paps of Jura in the distance
St Ninian's Isle and tombolo
The islands of Eileanan Chearabhaigh at centre, with mainland Benbecula in the foreground and the northern tip of Wiay beyond
Castle Stalker, as seen in Monty Python and the Holy Grail
The Tibetan Buddhist Centre for World Peace and Health on Holy Island
Oronsay Priory
Burntisland - not actually an island
Vementry Farm, on Mainland Shetland, with Isle of Vementry in hinterground
Modern reconstruction of a crannog in Loch Tay
Inchcolm Abbey, Firth of Forth

Scotland has over 900 offshore islands, most of which are to be found in four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Hebrides, sub-divided into the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides.

Countries of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), since 1922, comprises four constituent countries: England, Scotland, and Wales (which collectively make up Great Britain), as well as Northern Ireland (variously described as a country, province or region).

North Sea

Sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France.

Sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France.

Ocean currents mainly entering via the north entrance exiting along Norwegian coast
• Localization of the tide-gauges listed • Tide times after Bergen (negative = before) • The three amphidromic centers • Coasts: marshes = green mudflats = greenish blue  lagoons = bright blue  dunes = yellow  sea dikes= purple  moraines near the coast= light brown  rock-based coasts = greyish brown
The German North Sea coast
The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands
Zuid-Beveland, North Sea flood of 1953
Pacific oysters, blue mussels and cockles in the Wadden Sea in the Netherlands
European seagull on the coast of North Sea
A female bottlenose dolphin with her young in Moray Firth, Scotland
Phytoplankton bloom in the North Sea
Painting of the Four Days' Battle of 1666 by Willem van de Velde the Younger
German cruiser SMS Blücher sinks in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 25 January 1915.
The exclusive economic zones in the North Sea
Oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymarine
A trawler in Nordstrand, Germany
Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues
The beach in Scheveningen, Netherlands in c. 1900
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Map showing hypothetical extent of Doggerland (c. 8,000 BC), which provided a land bridge between Great Britain and continental Europe
North Sea from De Koog, Texel island
The North Sea between {{ma|34}} and {{ma|28}}, as Central Europe became dry land
thumb|A 1482 recreation of a map from Ptolemy's Geography showing the "Oceanus Germanicus"
thumb|Edmond Halley's solar eclipse 1715 map showing The German Sea

In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark much of its Norwegian and Scottish coastlines respectively, whereas in the south, the coast consists mainly of sandy beaches, estuaries of long rivers and wide mudflats.

Kingdom of Scotland

Sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

Sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

James VI, whose inheritance of the thrones of England and Ireland created a dynastic union in 1603
Coronation of Alexander III of Scotland at Scone Abbey; beside him are the Mormaers of Strathearn and Fife while his genealogy is recited by a royal poet.
The Regiam Majestatem is the oldest surviving written digest of Scots law.
Institution of the Court of Session by James V in 1532, from the Great Window in Parliament House, Edinburgh
Penny of David II (1329–71)
A bawbee from the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots
The topography of Scotland.
Plan of Edinburgh in 1764, the largest city in Scotland in the early modern era
Dundrennan Abbey, one of the many royal foundations of the 12th century
John Knox, one of the key figures in the Scottish Reformation
The riots set off by Jenny Geddes in St Giles Cathedral that sparked off the Bishops' Wars
Tower of St Salvator's College, St Andrews, one of the three universities founded in the 15th century
A woodcut showing John Mair, one of the most successful products of the Scottish educational system in the late 15th century
Andrew Melville, credited with major reforms in Scottish Universities in the 16th century.
A carving of a birlinn from a 16th-century tombstone in MacDufie's Chapel, Oronsay, as engraved in 1772
A model of the Great Michael in the Royal Museum
Scottish soldiers in the period of the Hundred Years' War, detail from an edition of Froissart's Chronicles
The earliest image of Scottish soldiers wearing tartan; 1631 German engraving.
Sculpture of Saint Andrew, Freemasons Hall, Edinburgh
The Royal Standard of Scotland
The Royal Standard of Scotland used, with minor variations, between 1603 and 1707.
The Flag of Scotland; Azure, a saltire argent
The Scottish Union Flag used between 1606 and 1707.

Following the annexation of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1266 and 1472 respectively, and the final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest.

Sir James Dalrymple, Viscount of Stair

Scots law

Sir James Dalrymple, Viscount of Stair
The Scottish Parliament located in Edinburgh has devolved powers to legislate for Scotland.
High Court of Justiciary

Scots law (Lagh na h-Alba) is the legal system of Scotland.

The public entrance of the Scottish Parliament building, opened in October 2004.

Scottish Parliament

The public entrance of the Scottish Parliament building, opened in October 2004.
Queen Elizabeth II at the opening of the Scottish Parliament on 1 July 1999 alongside then First Minister of Scotland Donald Dewar and then Presiding Officer Lord Steel of Aikwood
Seating in the debating chamber is arranged in a semicircle, with ministers sitting in the front section of the semicircle, directly opposite the presiding officer and parliamentary clerks.
The Crown of Scotland is carried by the Duke of Hamilton as the Queen leaves the Chamber, following the Opening of the fourth Session in July 2011.
Private Bill Committees are set up to deal with the legislation required for major public sector infrastructure projects, such as the underground extensions to the National Gallery of Scotland in 2003.
After a bill has passed through all legislative stages, it becomes an Act of the Scottish Parliament.
The result for the Glasgow Kelvin constituency being declared at the 2007 Scottish Parliament election.
The 2003 election's 129 Members of the Scottish Parliament; 73 represented individual constituencies and 56 represented eight additional member regions
The Scottish elections are divided into two tiers.

The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; Scots Pairlament) is the devolved, unicameral legislature of Scotland.

The A1 road crossing the border between Scotland and England. Entry to Scotland is marked by three Scottish saltires and entry into England is marked by three flags of Northumberland

Anglo-Scottish border

The A1 road crossing the border between Scotland and England. Entry to Scotland is marked by three Scottish saltires and entry into England is marked by three flags of Northumberland
Kershope Bridge over Kershope Burn, which forms the central section of the border. Scotland is to the right and England to the left.
History of the border
Territory claimed by England in the Treaty of Newcastle (1334).
Scots' Dike
Hadrian's Wall near Greenhead. The Wall has never formed the actual Anglo-Scottish border.
Three Scottish saltire flags fly at the border marking entry into Scotland
"Welcome to Northumberland"
A sign marking entry to Scotland on the A7, on the border of Dumfries and Galloway
The bridge over the Tweed at Coldstream

The Anglo-Scottish border (Crìochan Anglo-Albannach) is a border separating Scotland and England which runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.

Nicola Sturgeon's cabinet outside Bute House, 2021

Scottish Government

Nicola Sturgeon's cabinet outside Bute House, 2021
The Scottish Executive's original logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption. The logo was replaced in September 2007, with the name changed to "Scottish Government", and the Flag of Scotland used instead of the Royal Arms.
St Andrew's House
Victoria Quay
Bute House

The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba, ) is the devolved government of Scotland.