Scots language

ScotsLowland ScotsScottishBraid ScotsBroad ScotsOld ScotsScots dialectModern ScotsScotchLowland Scots language
Scots (Albais) is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster in Ireland (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).wikipedia
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Ulster Scots dialects

Ulster ScotsUlster-ScotsScots
Scots (Albais) is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster in Ireland (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots). Dialects include Insular Scots, Northern Scots, Central Scots, Southern Scots and Ulster Scots.
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch, Albainais), also known as Ulster Scotch, Scots-Irish and Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.

Scottish Highlands

HighlandsHighlandHighlands of Scotland
It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language which was historically restricted to most of the Highlands, the Hebrides and Galloway after the 16th century.
Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands.

Doric dialect (Scotland)

DoricDoric dialectDoric Scots
Native speakers sometimes refer to their vernacular as braid Scots (or "broad Scots" in English) or use a dialect name such as the "Doric", or the "Buchan Claik".
Doric, the popular name for Mid Northern Scots or Northeast Scots, refers to the Scots language as spoken in the northeast of Scotland.

Modern Scots

ScotsModern (Lowland) Scots languageScots pronunciation
The term Lallans, a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands, is also used, though this is more often taken to mean the Lallans literary form.
Modern Scots comprises the varieties of Scots traditionally spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster, from 1700.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
Scots (Albais) is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster in Ireland (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Other West Germanic languages include Afrikaans, an offshoot of Dutch, with over 7.1 million native speakers; Low German, considered a separate collection of unstandardized dialects, with roughly 0.3 million native speakers and probably 6.7–10 million people who can understand it (at least 5 million in Germany and 1.7 million in the Netherlands); Yiddish, once used by approximately 13 million Jews in pre-World War II Europe, and Scots, both with 1.5 million native speakers; Limburgish varieties with roughly 1.3 million speakers along the Dutch–Belgian–German border; and the Frisian languages with over 0.5 million native speakers in the Netherlands and Germany.

Early Scots

InglisEarlyNorthern Middle English
Scots is a contraction of Scottis, the Older Scots and northern version of late Old English Scottisc (modern English "Scottish"), which replaced the earlier i-mutated version Scyttisc.
Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450.

Scottish English

ScottishScottish accentEnglish
Broad Scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with Scottish Standard English at the other.
Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other.

Gavin Douglas

DouglasDoouglasGavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld
For example, towards the end of the fifteenth century, William Dunbar was using Erse to refer to Gaelic and, in the early sixteenth century, Gavin Douglas was using Scottis as a name for the Lowland vernacular.
His main pioneering achievement was the Eneados, a full and faithful vernacular translation of the Aeneid of Virgil into Scots, and the first successful example of its kind in any Anglic language.

William Dunbar

DunbarDunbar poems
For example, towards the end of the fifteenth century, William Dunbar was using Erse to refer to Gaelic and, in the early sixteenth century, Gavin Douglas was using Scottis as a name for the Lowland vernacular.
He was closely associated with the court of King James IV and produced a large body of work in Scots distinguished by its great variation in themes and literary styles.

Scottish Gaelic

GaelicScots GaelicGaelic language
It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language which was historically restricted to most of the Highlands, the Hebrides and Galloway after the 16th century. Contemporary Scottish Gaelic loans are mainly for geographical and cultural features, such as ceilidh, loch and clan.
Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era.

Auld Alliance

Franco-Scottish alliancealliancean alliance
Later influences on the development of Scots came from the Romance languages via ecclesiastical and legal Latin, Norman French, and later Parisian French, due to the Auld Alliance.
The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance"; Vieille Alliance; An Seann-chaidreachas ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.

List of Scottish monarchs

King of ScotsKing of ScotlandScotland
Middle Irish was the language of the Scottish court and the common use of Old English remained largely confined to this area until the thirteenth century.
The Kingdom of the Picts just became known as Kingdom of Alba in Gaelic, which later became known in Scots and English as Scotland; the terms are retained in both languages to this day.

Loch

sea lochloughlochs
Contemporary Scottish Gaelic loans are mainly for geographical and cultural features, such as ceilidh, loch and clan.
Loch is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet.

Lallans

Synthetic ScotsLallandsScots (Synthetic)
The term Lallans, a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands, is also used, though this is more often taken to mean the Lallans literary form.
Lallans (a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), is a term that was traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole.

Burgh

burghsBurgh CharterBurgh Council
From the thirteenth century, the Early Scots language spread further into Scotland via the burghs, which were proto-urban institutions first established by King David I.
A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England, usually a city, town, or toun in Scots.

Old Norse

NorseOld IcelandicOld West Norse
It began to further diverge from the Middle English of Northumbria due to twelfth and thirteenth century immigration of Scandinavian-influenced Middle English-speakers from the North and Midlands of England.
Old Norse also had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots, which contain many Old Norse loanwords.

Scotch (adjective)

Scotchcausing offenceScottish frugality
The old-fashioned Scotch, an English loan, occurs occasionally, especially in Northern Ireland.
The adjective or noun Scotch is an early modern English (16th century) contraction of the English word Scottish which was later adopted into the Scots language.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
Additionally, there were Dutch and Middle Low German influences due to trade with and immigration from the Low Countries.
Dutch is part of the West Germanic group, which also includes English, Scots, Frisian, Low German (Old Saxon) and High German.

Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
Scots (Albais) is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster in Ireland (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots, and Scottish Gaelic.

Southern Scots

Border ScotsSouthernBorder
Dialects include Insular Scots, Northern Scots, Central Scots, Southern Scots and Ulster Scots.
Southern Scots is the dialect (or group of dialects) of Scots spoken in the Scottish Borders counties of mid and east Dumfriesshire, Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire, with the notable exception of Berwickshire and Peeblesshire, which are, like Edinburgh, part of the SE Central Scots dialect area.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
Scots is a contraction of Scottis, the Older Scots and northern version of late Old English Scottisc (modern English "Scottish"), which replaced the earlier i-mutated version Scyttisc.
In fact, what would become the standard forms of Middle English and of Modern English are descended from Mercian rather than West Saxon, while Scots developed from the Northumbrian dialect.

Middle English

Late Middle EnglishMiddleEarly Middle English
The Scots language developed during the Middle English period as a distinct entity.
This would develop into what came to be known as the Scots language.

Central Scots

CentraldialectEdinburgh Scots dialect
Dialects include Insular Scots, Northern Scots, Central Scots, Southern Scots and Ulster Scots.
Central Scots is a group of dialects of Scots.

Insular Scots

InsularScots language
Dialects include Insular Scots, Northern Scots, Central Scots, Southern Scots and Ulster Scots.
Insular Scots comprises varieties of Lowland Scots generally subdivided into:

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

European Charter for Regional and Minority LanguagesEuropean Charter of regional languagesECRML
The UK government now accepts Scots as a regional language and has recognised it as such under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
The United Kingdom has ratified the Charter in respect to (among other languages) Welsh in Wales, Scots in Scotland, and Irish in Northern Ireland.