Scottish Enlightenment

EnlightenmentScottishEdinburgh EnlightenmentEnlightenedEnlightenment Edinburghenlightenment era EdinburghEnlightenment in ScotlandPost-EnlightenmentScotland”enlightened”
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.wikipedia
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The Poker Club

Poker Club
The Enlightenment culture was based on close readings of new books, and intense discussions took place daily at such intellectual gathering places in Edinburgh as The Select Society and, later, The Poker Club, as well as within Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh).
The Poker Club was one of several clubs at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment where many associated with that movement met and exchanged views in a convivial atmosphere.

History of Scotland

Scottish historyhistoryScotland
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
During the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, scepticism, and naturalism.

University of Glasgow

Glasgow UniversityGlasgowGlasgow College
The Enlightenment culture was based on close readings of new books, and intense discussions took place daily at such intellectual gathering places in Edinburgh as The Select Society and, later, The Poker Club, as well as within Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh).
Along with the universities of Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and St Andrews, the university was part of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century.

Dugald Stewart

Stewart, Dugald
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton.
He is best known for popularizing the Scottish Enlightenment and his lectures at the University of Edinburgh were widely disseminated by his many influential students.

Adam Smith

SmithA SmithAdam Smith’s
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton. Adam Smith developed and published The Wealth of Nations, the starting point of modern economics.
Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment, also known as or.

Francis Hutcheson (philosopher)

Francis HutchesonHutcheson
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton.
Francis Hutcheson (8 August 1694 – 8 August 1746) was an Ulster Scottish philosopher born in Ulster to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment.

University of Aberdeen

Aberdeen UniversityAberdeenThe University of Aberdeen
The Enlightenment culture was based on close readings of new books, and intense discussions took place daily at such intellectual gathering places in Edinburgh as The Select Society and, later, The Poker Club, as well as within Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh).
Many important figures in the field of theology were educated at the university, particularly in its earlier history, giving rise to the Aberdeen doctors in the 17th century and the prolific enlightenment philosopher Thomas Reid in the 18th.

Thomas Reid

ReidCommon Sense Philosophy of Thomas ReidReid, Thomas
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton. In contrast to Hume, Thomas Reid (1710–96), a student of Turnbull's, along with minister George Campbell (1719–96) and writer and moralist James Beattie (1735–1803), formulated Common Sense Realism.
He was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment.

Adam Ferguson

FergusonA. Ferguson
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton.
Adam Ferguson, FRSE (Scottish Gaelic: Adhamh MacFhearghais), also known as Ferguson of Raith (1 July N.S./20 June O.S. 1723 – 22 February 1816), was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment.

University of Edinburgh

Edinburgh UniversityEdinburghThe University of Edinburgh
The Enlightenment culture was based on close readings of new books, and intense discussions took place daily at such intellectual gathering places in Edinburgh as The Select Society and, later, The Poker Club, as well as within Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh).
By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment.

William Cullen

CullenProfessor William CullenDr. Cullen
By the end of the century, the University of Edinburgh's Medical School was arguably one of the leading centres of science in Europe, boasting such names as the anatomist Alexander Monro (secundus), the chemists William Cullen and Joseph Black, and the natural historian John Walker. Other major figures in science included William Cullen (1710–90), physician and chemist, James Anderson (1739–1808), agronomist.
Cullen was also a central figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.

George Turnbull (theologian)

George TurnbullGeorge Turnbull (1698-1748)
Also influenced by Shaftesbury was George Turnbull (1698–1748), who was regent at Marischal College, Aberdeen, and who published pioneering work in the fields of Christian ethics, art and education.
George Turnbull (11 July 1698 – 31 Jan 1748) was a Scottish philosopher, theologian, teacher, writer on education and an early but little-known figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.

Allan Ramsay (poet)

Allan RamsayAllan RamseyRamsay
Allan Ramsay (1686–1758) laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form.
Allan Ramsay (15 October 1686 – 7 January 1758) was a Scottish poet (or makar), playwright, publisher, librarian, and impresario of early Enlightenment Edinburgh.

James Hutton

HuttonHutton, JamesDr. James Hutton
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton.
Hutton was one of the most influential participants in the Scottish Enlightenment, and fell in with numerous first-class minds in the sciences including mathematician John Playfair, philosopher David Hume and economist Adam Smith.

John Walker (natural historian)

John WalkerDr. John WalkerJ. Walker
By the end of the century, the University of Edinburgh's Medical School was arguably one of the leading centres of science in Europe, boasting such names as the anatomist Alexander Monro (secundus), the chemists William Cullen and Joseph Black, and the natural historian John Walker.
Walker was a protégé of the chemist William Cullen and a colleague of Dugald Stewart, Joseph Black and several other Edinburgh professors who shaped the intellectual milieu of the Scottish Enlightenment.

Hugh Blair

Dr. BlairDr. Hugh BlairLectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres
Hugh Blair (1718–1800) was a minister of the Church of Scotland and held the Chair of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres at the University of Edinburgh.
Best known for Sermons, a five volume endorsement of practical Christian morality, and Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, a prescriptive guide on composition, Blair was a valuable part of the Scottish Enlightenment.

Robert Fergusson

FergussonBob Fergusson
Before Robert Burns (1759–96) the most important Scottish language poet was Robert Fergusson (1750–74), who also worked in English.
After formal education at the University of St Andrews, Fergusson led a bohemian life in Edinburgh, the city of his birth, then at the height of intellectual and cultural ferment as part of the Scottish enlightenment.

Henry Home, Lord Kames

Lord KamesHenry HomeHenry Home (Lord Kames)
The lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696–1782) made a major contribution to the study of literature with Elements of Criticism (1762), which became the standard textbook on rhetoric and style.
A central figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, a founder member of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, and active in the Select Society, he acted as patron some of the most influential thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment, including the philosopher David Hume, the economist Adam Smith, the writer James Boswell, the chemical philosopher William Cullen, and the naturalist John Walker.

The Wealth of Nations

Wealth of NationsAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of NationsAdam Smith
Adam Smith developed and published The Wealth of Nations, the starting point of modern economics.
The Wealth of Nations was published March 9, 1776, during the Scottish Enlightenment and the Scottish Agricultural Revolution.

James Anderson of Hermiston

James AndersonDr James Anderson of EdinburghDr. Anderson
Other major figures in science included William Cullen (1710–90), physician and chemist, James Anderson (1739–1808), agronomist.
A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, Anderson was a prominent figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.

Joseph Black

BlackBlack, JosephDr Black’s
Among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton.
He was 1st cousin, great friend and colleague to Adam Ferguson FRSE who married his niece Katherine Burnett in 1767, and associated with David Hume, Adam Smith, and the literati of the Scottish Enlightenment.

George Campbell (minister)

George CampbellGeorge Campbell (Presbyterian minister)Rev Prof George Campbell
In contrast to Hume, Thomas Reid (1710–96), a student of Turnbull's, along with minister George Campbell (1719–96) and writer and moralist James Beattie (1735–1803), formulated Common Sense Realism.
Rev Prof George Campbell DD FRSE (25 December 1719 – 6 April 1796) was a figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, known as a philosopher, minister, and professor of divinity.

John Adam (architect)

John AdamJohnAdam Brothers
However, the family home became a hub of the Scottish Enlightenment, with numerous Edinburgh virtuosi visiting.

Sir John Clerk, 2nd Baronet

Sir John Clerk of PenicuikSir John ClerkJohn Clerk of Penicuik
He was Vice-President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, the pre-eminent learned society of the Scottish Enlightenment.