Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationEuropean colonization of AfricaAfricacolonialEuropean colonialismin AfricaColonialismcolonizationdivision of Africa
The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonisation of African territory by European powers during the period known to historians as the New Imperialism (between 1881 and 1914).wikipedia
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Liberia

Republic of LiberiaLBRLiberian
In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia), the Dervish state (a portion of present-day Somalia) and Liberia still being independent. By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European control.
It retained its independence during the Scramble for Africa.

Colonisation of Africa

colonial Africacolonialcolonial period
The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonisation of African territory by European powers during the period known to historians as the New Imperialism (between 1881 and 1914).
In popular parlance, discussions of colonialism in Africa usually focus on the European conquests that culminated in the era of New Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa (1884-1914), followed by gradual decolonisation.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European control.
During the late 19th-century Scramble for Africa, Ethiopia and Liberia were two nations that preserved their sovereignty from long-term colonisation by a European colonial power and many newly-independent nations on the continent subsequently adopted its flag colours.

Ethiopian Empire

EthiopiaAbyssiniaEthiopian
In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia), the Dervish state (a portion of present-day Somalia) and Liberia still being independent.
Furthermore, it was the only pre-colonial African state to survive the 19th century Scramble for Africa.

France in the long nineteenth century

France in the nineteenth centuryFrance19th century France
The most important holdings were Angola and Mozambique, held by Portugal; the Cape Colony, held by the United Kingdom; and Algeria, held by France.
The late 19th century saw France embark on a massive program of overseas imperialism — including French Indochina (modern day Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos) and Africa (the Scramble for Africa brought France most of North-West and Central Africa) — which brought it in direct competition with British interests.

French Third Republic

FranceThird RepublicFrench
During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression (1873–96), Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall.
The Third Republic established many French colonial possessions, including French Indochina, French Madagascar, French Polynesia, and large territories in West Africa during the Scramble for Africa, all of them acquired during the last two decades of the 19th century.

Imperialism

imperialistimperialisticimperial
The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule, bringing about colonial imperialism. William Easterly, however, disagrees with the link made between capitalism and imperialism, arguing that colonialism is used mostly to promote state-led development rather than "corporate" development.
To better illustrate this idea, Bassett focuses his analysis of the role of 19th-century maps during the "scramble for Africa".

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression (1873–96), Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall.
Claiming much of the leftover territory that was yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire at the time, after the British and the French ones.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia), the Dervish state (a portion of present-day Somalia) and Liberia still being independent. The same year, Britain occupied Egypt (hitherto an autonomous state owing nominal fealty to the Ottoman Empire), which ruled over Sudan and parts of Chad, Eritrea, and Somalia.
In the late 19th century, after the Berlin Conference of 1884, European powers began the Scramble for Africa, which inspired the Dervish leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan to rally support from across the Horn of Africa and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever.

Colonialism

colonialcolonial powerscolonialist
William Easterly, however, disagrees with the link made between capitalism and imperialism, arguing that colonialism is used mostly to promote state-led development rather than "corporate" development.
In the late 19th century, many European powers were involved in the Scramble for Africa.

David Livingstone

LivingstoneDr. LivingstoneDr Livingstone
David Livingstone's explorations, carried on by Henry Morton Stanley, excited imaginations with Stanley's grandiose ideas for colonisation; but these found little support owing to the problems and scale of action required, except from Leopold II of Belgium, who in 1876 had organised the International African Association (the Congo Society).
At the same time, his missionary travels, "disappearance", and eventual death in Africaand subsequent glorification as a posthumous national hero in 1874led to the founding of several major central African Christian missionary initiatives carried forward in the era of the European "Scramble for Africa".

French West Africa

FrenchFrench colonial ruleWest Africa
French West Africa (AOF) was founded in 1895, and French Equatorial Africa in 1910.
As the French pursued their part in the scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s, they conquered large inland areas, and at first, ruled them as either a part of the Senegal colony or as independent entities.

Joseph Thomson (explorer)

Joseph ThomsonJoseph Thompson
Rhodes and the BSAC sent two expeditions to Msiri in 1890 led by Alfred Sharpe, who was rebuffed, and Joseph Thomson, who failed to reach Katanga.
Joseph Thomson (14 February 1858 – 2 August 1895) was a Scottish geologist and explorer who played an important part in the Scramble for Africa.

British South Africa Company

British South African CompanyBritish South Africa Company (BSAC)Chartered Company
At the same time, the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes was expanding north from the Limpopo River, sending the Pioneer Column (guided by Frederick Selous) through Matabeleland, and starting a colony in Mashonaland.
Rhodes hoped BSAC would promote colonisation and economic exploitation across much of south-central Africa, as part of the "Scramble for Africa".

Fashoda Incident

Fashoda CrisisFashodaat Fashoda
Along with the 1898 Fashoda Incident between France and Britain, this succession of international crises reveals the bitterness of the struggle between the various imperialist nations, which ultimately led to World War I.
This period in African history is usually called the Scramble for Africa.

British Cameroon

British CameroonsCameroonsNorthern Cameroons
In 1884, Germany declared Togoland, the Cameroons and South West Africa to be under its protection; and France occupied Guinea.
The area of present-day Cameroon was claimed by Germany as a protectorate during the "Scramble for Africa" at the end of the 19th century.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of CongoCongoDR Congo
The brutality of King Leopold II of Belgium in his former colony of the Congo Free State, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was well documented; up to 8 million of the estimated 16 million native inhabitants died between 1885 and 1908.
In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo Basin was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of Leopold II of Belgium.

Eritrea

State of EritreaEritreanERI
The same year, Britain occupied Egypt (hitherto an autonomous state owing nominal fealty to the Ottoman Empire), which ruled over Sudan and parts of Chad, Eritrea, and Somalia.
The boundaries of the present-day Eritrea nation state were established during the Scramble for Africa.

Stairs Expedition to Katanga

Stairs Expeditionexpedition
The well-armed Stairs Expedition was given orders to take Katanga with or without Msiri's consent.
This "scramble for Katanga" was a prime example of the colonial Scramble for Africa, and one of the most dramatic incidents of that period.

East Africa

Eastern AfricaEastEastern
In the middle decades of the 19th century, European explorers had mapped areas of East Africa and Central Africa. The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in Southern Africa (modern South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zambia), with their territories in East Africa (modern Kenya), and these two areas with the Nile basin.
During the period of the Scramble for Africa, almost every country in the larger region to varying degrees became part of a European colonial empire.

Brazzaville

Brazzaville, Republic of the CongoBrazavilleBrazzaville, Congo
While Stanley was exploring Congo on behalf of Leopold II of Belgium, the Franco-Italian marine officer Pierre de Brazza travelled into the western Congo basin and raised the French flag over the newly founded Brazzaville in 1881, thus occupying today's Republic of the Congo.
Brazzaville was founded by the French colonial empire upon an existing indigenous Bateke settlement called Ncuna, as part of the Scramble for Africa.

Expansionism

expansionistwestward expansionexpansion
Germany's expansionism would lead to the Tirpitz Plan, implemented by Admiral von Tirpitz, who would also champion the various Fleet Acts starting in 1898, thus engaging in an arms race with Britain.
The term was coined during the late nineteenth century as European powers indulged in the 'Scramble for Africa' in the name of national glory, but has been most associated with militarist governments during the 20th century including Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, the Japanese empire, and the Balkans countries of Albania (Greater Albania), Bulgaria (Greater Bulgaria), Croatia (Greater Croatia), Hungary (Greater Hungary), Romania (Greater Romania) and Serbia (Greater Serbia).

Mali

Republic of MaliMalianMLI
The French thrust into the African interior was mainly from the coasts of West Africa (modern day Senegal) eastward, through the Sahel along the southern border of the Sahara, a huge desert covering most of present-day Senegal, Mali, Niger, and Chad.
In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan.

Eswatini

SwazilandSwaziEswatini (Swaziland)
The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in Southern Africa (modern South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zambia), with their territories in East Africa (modern Kenya), and these two areas with the Nile basin.
The country and the Swazi take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified; the present boundaries were drawn up in 1881 in the midst of the Scramble for Africa.

Entente Cordiale

EntenteAnglo-French EntenteAnglo-French
Following the 1904 Entente cordiale between France and the British Empire, Germany tried to isolate France in 1905 with the First Moroccan Crisis.
The Scramble for Africa prevented the countries from coming to terms, however.