Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingunbounded scramblingshifting words aroundScramblescrambled
Scrambling is a common term for pragmatic word order.wikipedia
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Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies
Scrambling often (but not always) results in a discontinuity; the scrambled expression appears at a distance from its head in such a manner that crossing lines are present in the syntactic tree.
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.

Topicalization

topicalizednon-topicalisednon-topicalized statements
Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).

Wh-movement

wh''-frontingwh-frontingwh-in-situ
Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.

Extraposition

Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.
but it is like scrambling discontinuities; scrambling cannot displace a constituent from one clause into another.

Syntactic movement

movementtracemovements
Constituency-based theories (phrase structure theories) that prefer strictly binary branching structures are likely to address most cases of scrambling in terms of movement (or copying).
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency structure
Many other theories of sentence structure, for instance those that allow n-ary branching structures (such as all dependency grammars), see many (but not all!) instances of scrambling involving just shifting; a discontinuity is not involved.
Comprehensive dependency grammar accounts of topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition are mostly absent from many established dependency-based frameworks.

Colognian declension

Still, Colognian makes generally only limited use of word order, shifting words around does either not alter the meanings of sentences, or yields other types of sentences having different meanings but keeps the roles of the referents of the words as long as their declined forms are kept.

John R. Ross

RossRoss, John RobertJohn R. “Haj” Ross
Ross is also well known for his onomastic fecundity; he has coined many new terms describing syntactic phenomena that are well-known to this day, including copula switch, Do-Gobbling, freeze(s), gapping, heavy NP shift, (inner) islands, myopia, the penthouse principle, pied piping, pruning, scrambling, siamese sentences, sluicing, slifting, sloppy identity, sounding, squib, squishes, viability, and syntactic islands.

Persian grammar

PersiangrammarGrammar of Persian Language
If the object is specific, the order is '(S) (O + rā) (PP) V'. However, Persian can have a relatively free word order, often called scrambling, because the parts of speech are generally unambiguous, and prepositions and the accusative marker help to disambiguate the case of a given noun phrase.

Scramble

scrambled
Scrambling (syntax), a linguistic term for variation of word order

Pazurgo

Once all of the solution word chains have been discovered, the remaining available letters form the solution to the Scramble clue, when those letters are unscrambled in the correct order.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenae
The catena concept was introduced to linguistics by William O'Grady in 1998 and has been seized upon by other linguists and applied to the syntax of idiosyncratic meaning of all sorts, such as ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping, stripping, VP-ellipsis, pseudogapping, sluicing, answer ellipsis, comparative deletion), predicate-argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, extraposition, etc.).

Movement paradox

A transformational approach to syntax will explain all sorts of discontinuities (e.g. wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, shifting) in this manner in terms of movement.

Pied-piping

pied-piped
While pied-piping is most visible in cases of wh-fronting of information questions and relative clauses, it is not limited to wh-fronting, but rather it can be construed as occurring with most any type of discontinuity (extraposition, scrambling, topicalization).

Susumu Kuno

Kuno Susumu
Kuno is known for his discourse-functionalist approach to syntax known as functional sentence perspective and for his analysis of the syntax of Japanese verbs and particularly the semantic and grammatical characteristics of stativity and the semantic correlates of case marking and constraints on scrambling.

Old English grammar

Old Englishcase system of Old Englishgrammar of Old English
Scrambling of constituents was common.

Context-sensitive grammar

context-sensitivecontext-sensitive (or Type-1) grammarsType 1 (Context Sensitive)
It was proven that some natural languages are not context-free, based on identifying so-called cross-serial dependencies and unbounded scrambling phenomena.

Ayesha Kidwai

She proposed a novel theory on free word order, exemplified by scrambled noun-phrases in Hindi-Urdu.

PRO (linguistics)

PRObig PRO
* Imoaka argues that scrambling out of a split control clause is incompatible with the movement theory of control as constructed in Japanese by Takano and Fujii.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Scrambling

Word order

free word orderconstituent orderword-order
Scrambling is a common term for pragmatic word order.

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
In the Chomskyan tradition, every language is assumed to have a basic word order which is fundamental to its sentence structure, so languages which exhibit a wide variety of different orders are said to have "scrambled" them from their "normal" word order.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.