Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingScramblescrambledshifting words aroundunbounded scrambling
Scrambling is a common term for pragmatic word order.wikipedia
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Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies
Scrambling often (but not always) results in a discontinuity; the scrambled expression appears at a distance from its head in such a manner that crossing lines are present in the syntactic tree.
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.

Topicalization

topicalizedfrontingnon-topicalised
Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).

Wh-movement

wh''-frontingwh-frontingfronted
Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.

Extraposition

Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.
but it is like scrambling discontinuities; scrambling cannot displace a constituent from one clause into another.

Syntactic movement

movementtracemovements
Constituency-based theories (phrase structure theories) that prefer strictly binary branching structures are likely to address most cases of scrambling in terms of movement (or copying).
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
Many other theories of sentence structure, for instance those that allow n-ary branching structures (such as all dependency grammars), see many (but not all!) instances of scrambling involving just shifting; a discontinuity is not involved.
Comprehensive dependency grammar accounts of topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition are mostly absent from many established dependency-based frameworks.

Word order

free word orderconstituent orderword-order
Scrambling is a common term for pragmatic word order.

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
In the Chomskyan tradition, every language is assumed to have a basic word order which is fundamental to its sentence structure, so languages which exhibit a wide variety of different orders are said to have "scrambled" them from their "normal" word order.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.

Persian language

PersianFarsiNew Persian
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.

Turkic languages

TurkicTurkic-speakingTurkic language
Scrambling does not occur in English, but it is frequent in languages with freer word order, such as German, Russian, Persian and Turkic languages.

Dependent clause

subordinate clausesubordinate clausessubordinate
These examples illustrate typical cases of scrambling in the midfield of a subordinate clause in German.

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
Scrambling in German is associated with the midfield, i.e. the part of the sentence that appears between the finite verb and a non-finite verb in main clauses and between the subordinator (= subordinating conjunction) and the finite verb in an embedded clause (= subordinate clause).

Nonfinite verb

non-finite verbnon-finitenon-finite forms
Scrambling in German is associated with the midfield, i.e. the part of the sentence that appears between the finite verb and a non-finite verb in main clauses and between the subordinator (= subordinating conjunction) and the finite verb in an embedded clause (= subordinate clause).

Conjunction (grammar)

conjunctionconjunctionssubordinating conjunction
Scrambling in German is associated with the midfield, i.e. the part of the sentence that appears between the finite verb and a non-finite verb in main clauses and between the subordinator (= subordinating conjunction) and the finite verb in an embedded clause (= subordinate clause).

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
There is a clear tendency for definite pronouns to appear to the left in the midfield.

Government (linguistics)

governorgovernmentgovern
There is no midfield involved in this case, which means the non-canonical position in which das appears in relation to its governor erwähnt cannot be addressed in terms of midfield scrambling.

Classical Latin

classicalLatinlatinist
Classical Latin and Ancient Greek were known for a more extreme type of scrambling known as hyperbaton, defined as a "violent displacement of words".

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Classical Latin and Ancient Greek were known for a more extreme type of scrambling known as hyperbaton, defined as a "violent displacement of words".

Hyperbaton

complex syntactical orderhiperbatónhyperbatons
Classical Latin and Ancient Greek were known for a more extreme type of scrambling known as hyperbaton, defined as a "violent displacement of words".

Ablative case

ablativeAbl.separative case
This was possible in Latin and Greek because of case-marking: For example, both magnā and laude are in the ablative case.

Ovid

Publius Ovidius Naso OvidConsolatio ad Liviam
An example from Ovid is