Screen reader

screen readersscreen readingscreen reading devicesscreen reading programscreen reading softwarescreen reading technologyscreen-reading
A screen reader is a form of assistive technology that is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability.wikipedia
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Microsoft Narrator

Narrator
Microsoft Windows operating systems have included the Microsoft Narrator screen reader since Windows 2000.
Narrator is a screen reader in Microsoft Windows.

Visual impairment

blindblindnessvisually impaired
A screen reader is a form of assistive technology that is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability.
They use computers with special hardware such as scanners and refreshable Braille displays as well as software written specifically for the blind, such as optical character recognition applications and screen readers.

VoiceOver

Apple VoiceOver
Apple Inc. macOS, iOS, and tvOS include VoiceOver as a built-in screen reader, while Google Android provides Talkback screen reader since 2009.
VoiceOver is a screen reader built into Apple Inc.'s macOS, iOS, tvOS, watchOS, and iPod operating systems.

TvOS

tvOS 11Apple TV Software 4Apple TV Software 5
Apple Inc. macOS, iOS, and tvOS include VoiceOver as a built-in screen reader, while Google Android provides Talkback screen reader since 2009.
VoiceOver, Apple's screen reader, is available in more than 30 languages and enables visually impaired users to know what is on the visual display and input responses to on-screen prompts.

Refreshable braille display

braille displayBraille displaysbraille computer terminals
Screen readers are software applications that attempt to convey what people with normal eyesight see on a display to their users via non-visual means, like text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille device.
The software that controls the display is called a screen reader.

Orca (assistive technology)

Orca
There are also popular free and open source screen readers, such as Speakup and Orca for Linux and Unix-like systems and NonVisual Desktop Access for Windows.
Orca is a free and open-source, flexible, extensible screen reader from the GNOME project for individuals who are blind or visually impaired.

NonVisual Desktop Access

NVDANonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA)
There are also popular free and open source screen readers, such as Speakup and Orca for Linux and Unix-like systems and NonVisual Desktop Access for Windows. The most widely used screen readers are often separate commercial products: JAWS from Freedom Scientific, NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) from NV Access, Window-Eyes from GW Micro, Dolphin Supernova by Dolphin, System Access from Serotek, and ZoomText Magnifier/Reader from AiSquared are prominent examples.
NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) is a free, open-source, portable screen reader for Microsoft Windows.

Windows 2000

2000Windows 2000 ServerMicrosoft Windows 2000
Microsoft Windows operating systems have included the Microsoft Narrator screen reader since Windows 2000.

Window-Eyes

The most widely used screen readers are often separate commercial products: JAWS from Freedom Scientific, NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) from NV Access, Window-Eyes from GW Micro, Dolphin Supernova by Dolphin, System Access from Serotek, and ZoomText Magnifier/Reader from AiSquared are prominent examples.
Window-Eyes is a screen reader for the Microsoft Windows operating system, developed by GW Micro.

Braille

braille alphabetbraille typewriterBraille code
The user can switch between controls (such as buttons) available on the screen and the captions and control contents will be read aloud and/or shown on refreshable Braille display.
However, in the face of changes in education policy and screen reader software, braille usage has declined in recent decades, despite the fact that technologies such as braille displays have also made braille more accessible and practical.

Dolphin Computer Access

DolphinDolphin Lunar
The most widely used screen readers are often separate commercial products: JAWS from Freedom Scientific, NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) from NV Access, Window-Eyes from GW Micro, Dolphin Supernova by Dolphin, System Access from Serotek, and ZoomText Magnifier/Reader from AiSquared are prominent examples.
Through the use of Dolphin's screen enlargers, screen readers and braille output, users can operate word processors, spreadsheets, databases and the internet.

Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface

AT-SPIassistive technology
In that way, Assistive Technologies (ATs) like screen readers, would be the clients of that framework, and computer applications would be the server.

Self-voicing

These programs are termed self-voicing and can be a form of assistive technology if they are designed to remove the need to use a screen reader.
A self-voicing application is an application that provides an aural interface without requiring a separate screen reader.

List of screen readers

Comparison of screen readersThunderThunder (assistive technology)
Screen readers are a form of assistive technology.

Java Access Bridge

The Java Access Bridge (JAB) exposes accessibility information about Java components to screen readers and other assistive technologies running on the Windows platform.

Screen magnifier

screen magnifierscomputer screen imagesmagnifier
This type of assistive technology is useful for people with some functional vision; people with visual impairments and little or no functional vision usually use a screen reader.

BrowseAloud

Other examples are ReadSpeaker or BrowseAloud that add text-to-speech functionality to web content.
This required vision and motor skills to use, making BrowseAloud inaccessible to groups that could use other screen readers, such as JAWS.

JAWS (screen reader)

JAWSJAWS screen readerJAWS for Windows
The most widely used screen readers are often separate commercial products: JAWS from Freedom Scientific, NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) from NV Access, Window-Eyes from GW Micro, Dolphin Supernova by Dolphin, System Access from Serotek, and ZoomText Magnifier/Reader from AiSquared are prominent examples.
JAWS ("Job Access With Speech") is a computer screen reader program for Microsoft Windows that allows blind and visually impaired users to read the screen either with a text-to-speech output or by a refreshable Braille display.

Vinux

Specifically it is a remastered version of the popular Ubuntu distribution and provides users with two screen readers, two full-screen magnifiers, global font-size and colour changing facilities.

Speech synthesis

text-to-speechspeech synthesizertext to speech
Screen readers are software applications that attempt to convey what people with normal eyesight see on a display to their users via non-visual means, like text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille device. Other examples are ReadSpeaker or BrowseAloud that add text-to-speech functionality to web content.
High-speed synthesized speech is used by the visually impaired to quickly navigate computers using a screen reader.

Assistive technology

assistive technologiesassistive deviceadaptive technology
A screen reader is a form of assistive technology that is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability. These programs are termed self-voicing and can be a form of assistive technology if they are designed to remove the need to use a screen reader.

Literacy

literacy rategender disparityilliterate
A screen reader is a form of assistive technology that is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability.

Learning disability

learning disabilitieslearning difficultieslearning disorders
A screen reader is a form of assistive technology that is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability.

Application software

applicationapplicationssoftware application
Screen readers are software applications that attempt to convey what people with normal eyesight see on a display to their users via non-visual means, like text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille device.

Display device

displayvideo monitorbezel
Screen readers are software applications that attempt to convey what people with normal eyesight see on a display to their users via non-visual means, like text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille device.