Sea ice

ice floesicepack icesea-iceice driftice floefirst year iceice covernilasArctic ice cap
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.wikipedia
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Arctic ice pack

polar ice packarctic sea icePolar ice packs
Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean.
The Arctic ice pack is the sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity.

Arctic Ocean

ArcticArctic coastArctic waters
Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean.
It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter.

Arctic sea ice ecology and history

Arctic sea ice ecologyocean's ecosystems
Polar packs undergo a significant yearly cycling in surface extent, a natural process upon which depends the Arctic ecology, including the ocean's ecosystems.
The multi-year (i.e. perennial) sea ice covers nearly all of the central deep basins.

Glacier

glaciersglacialglaciated
Sea ice may be contrasted with icebergs, which are chunks of ice shelves or glaciers that calve into the ocean.
Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.

Arctic ecology

arcticArctic ecosystems
Polar packs undergo a significant yearly cycling in surface extent, a natural process upon which depends the Arctic ecology, including the ocean's ecosystems.
Sea ice is frozen seawater that moves with oceanic currents; it provides important habitat and a resting place for animals, particularly during the winter months.

Drift ice

pack iceice floeice floes
If attached, it is called landfast ice, or more often, fast ice (from fastened). Alternatively, and unlike fast ice, drift ice occurs further offshore in very wide areas, and encompasses ice that is free to move with currents and winds.
Drift ice, also called brash ice, is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).

Fast ice

shore-fast iceland-fast icefast-ice
If attached, it is called landfast ice, or more often, fast ice (from fastened). Alternatively, and unlike fast ice, drift ice occurs further offshore in very wide areas, and encompasses ice that is free to move with currents and winds.
Fast ice (also called land-fast ice, landfast ice, and shore-fast ice) is sea ice that is "fastened" to the coastline, to the sea floor along shoals or to grounded icebergs.

Arctic

the ArcticcircumpolarHigh Arctic
(In some sources, old ice is more than 2-years old.) Multi-year ice is much more common in the Arctic than it is in the Antarctic.
Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice)-containing tundra.

Ice shelf

ice shelvesice shelveAntarctic ice shelves
Sea ice may be contrasted with icebergs, which are chunks of ice shelves or glaciers that calve into the ocean.
In contrast, sea ice is formed on water, is much thinner (typically less than ), and forms throughout the Arctic Ocean.

Iceberg

icebergstabular icebergice
Sea ice may be contrasted with icebergs, which are chunks of ice shelves or glaciers that calve into the ocean.
These icebergs originate from the glaciers of western Greenland and may have interior temperatures of -15 to -20 C. Winds and currents tend to move icebergs close to coastlines, where they can become frozen into pack ice (one form of sea ice), or drift into shallow waters, where they can come into contact with the seabed, a phenomenon called seabed gouging.

Pressure ridge (ice)

pressure ridgespressure ridge pressure ridge
The end result may be of three types of features: 1) Rafted ice, when one piece is overriding another; 2) Pressure ridges, a line of broken ice forced downward (to make up the keel) and upward (to make the sail); and 3) Hummock, an hillock of broken ice that forms an uneven surface.
Within sea ice expanses, pressure ridges originate from the interaction between floes, as they collide with each other.

Finger rafting

Rafted ice
The end result may be of three types of features: 1) Rafted ice, when one piece is overriding another; 2) Pressure ridges, a line of broken ice forced downward (to make up the keel) and upward (to make the sail); and 3) Hummock, an hillock of broken ice that forms an uneven surface.
As two expanses of sea ice converge toward another, one of them slides smoothly on top of the other (it is overthrusted) along a given distance, resulting in a local increase in ice thickness.

Lead (sea ice)

leadsleadice leads
Leads and polynyas are areas of open water that occur within sea ice expanses even though air temperatures are below freezing, and provide a direct interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere, which is important for the wildlife.
A lead is a large fracture within an expanse of sea ice, defining a linear area of open water that can be used for navigation purposes.

Vladimir Wiese

V. Yu. VizeVladimir VizeTourist Cruise
Russian scientist Vladimir Vize (1886–1954) devoted his life to study the Arctic ice pack and developed the Scientific Prediction of Ice Conditions Theory, for which he was widely acclaimed in academic circles.
Vladimir Yulyevich Vize (Владимир Юльевич Визе; 21 February 1886, Tsarskoe Selo – 19 February 1954, Leningrad), was a Russian scientist of German descent who devoted his life to the study of the Arctic ice pack.

Southern Ocean

SouthernAntarcticSouth Seas
Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean.
One of these is the Antarctic Bottom Water, a very cold, highly saline, dense water that forms under sea ice.

Melt pond

melt pondsmelt-pond
In addition, melt ponds on the ice surface during the melt season lower the albedo such that more solar radiation is absorbed, leading to a feedback where melt is accelerated.
Melt ponds are pools of open water that form on sea ice in the warmer months of spring and summer.

Stamukha

Stamukhi
Stamukhi are yet another type of pile-up but these are grounded and are therefore relatively stationary.
A stamukha (plural: stamukhi; from Russian стамуха) is a grounded accumulation of sea ice rubble that typically develops along the boundary between fast ice and the drifting pack ice, or becomes incorporated into the fast ice.

Grease ice

Other terms, such as grease ice and pancake ice, are used for ice crystal accumulations under the action of wind and waves.
Grease ice is the second stage in the formation of solid sea ice after ice floes and then frazil ice.

Antarctic sea ice

pack iceAntarcticsea Ice
Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean.
Antarctic sea ice is the sea ice of the Southern Ocean.

Pancake ice

Other terms, such as grease ice and pancake ice, are used for ice crystal accumulations under the action of wind and waves.
It may be formed on water covered to some degree in slush, shuga or grease ice.

Polar bear

polar bearsPolar bear huntingU. maritimus
Sea ice provides an ecosystem for various polar species, particularly the polar bear, whose environment is being threatened as global warming causes the ice to melt more as the Earth's temperature gets warmer.
Although most polar bears are born on land, they spend most of their time on the sea ice.

Sea ice growth processes

brinebrine drainage
The two main ingredients are the ice dynamics and the thermodynamical properties (see Sea ice emissivity modelling, Sea ice growth processes and Sea ice thickness).
Sea ice is a complex composite composed primarily of pure ice in various states of crystallization along with air bubbles and included pockets of brine.

CICE (sea ice model)

CICECICE numerical suiteCICE sea ice model
There are a number of sea ice model computer codes available for doing this, including the CICE numerical suite.
CICE is a computer model that simulates the growth, melt and movement of sea ice.

Sea ice thickness

determining surface fluxice thickness
The two main ingredients are the ice dynamics and the thermodynamical properties (see Sea ice emissivity modelling, Sea ice growth processes and Sea ice thickness).
Sea ice thickness spatial extent, and open water within sea ice packs can vary rapidly in response to weather and climate.

Seawater

saltwatersea watersalt water
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Sea ice