Sea level rise

rising sea levelssea-level risesea level changecurrent sea level risesea levelrise in sea levelrising sea levelrisesea levelssea levels to rise
At least since 1880, the average global sea level has been rising.wikipedia
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Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
The acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and melt of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.
Ongoing and anticipated effects include rising sea levels, changing precipitation, and expansion of deserts in the subtropics.

Sea level

mean sea levelMSLAMSL
At least since 1880, the average global sea level has been rising.
However 20th century and current millenium sea level rise is caused by global warming, and careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change.

Glacier

glaciersglacialglaciated
The acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and melt of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.
Since glacial mass is affected by long-term climatic changes, e.g., precipitation, mean temperature, and cloud cover, glacial mass changes are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change and are a major source of variations in sea level.

Coastal flood

coastal floodingCoastal Flood Warningcyclone-generated wave washover
Widespread coastal flooding is expected with several degrees of warming sustained for millennia.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimate global mean sea-level rise from 1990 to 2100 to be between nine and eighty eight centimetres.

Meltwater pulse 1A

meltwater pulses
Rapid disintegration of ice sheets led to so called 'meltwater pulses', periods during which sea level rose rapidly.
Meltwater pulse 1A (MWP1a) is the name used by Quaternary geologists, paleoclimatologists, and oceanographers for a period of rapid post-glacial sea level rise, between 13,500 and 14,700 years ago, during which global sea level rose between 16 m and 25 m in about 400–500 years, giving mean rates of roughly 40–60 mm/yr.

Antarctica

Antarctic🇦🇶Antarctic continent
The contributing factors to sea level rise between 1993 and 2018 are thermal expansion of the oceans (42%), melting of temperate glaciers (21%), Greenland (15%) and Antarctica (8%).
If the sheet were to break down, ocean levels would rise by several metres in a relatively geologically short period of time, perhaps a matter of centuries.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)International Panel on Climate Change
For example, in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projected a high end estimate of through 2099, but their 2014 report raised the high-end estimate to about.
"Adaptation [to the effects of climate change] has the potential to reduce adverse effects of climate change and can often produce immediate ancillary benefits, but will not prevent all damages." An example of adaptation to climate change is building levees in response to sea level rise.

Past sea level

sea levelsea level fluctuationrise of sea level
Understanding past sea level is important for the analysis of current and future changes.
The current rise in sea level observed from tide gauges, of about 1.8 mm/yr, is within the estimate range from the combination of factors above, but active research continues in this field.

Greenland ice sheet

Greenlandice sheetice cap
Each year about 8 mm of precipitation (liquid equivalent) falls on the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, mostly as snow, which accumulates and over time forms glacial ice.
If the entire 2850000 km3 of ice were to melt, it would lead to a global sea level rise of 7.2 m, over 14,000 years at current rates of melting.

Greenland

🇬🇱GreenlandicGL
The contributing factors to sea level rise between 1993 and 2018 are thermal expansion of the oceans (42%), melting of temperate glaciers (21%), Greenland (15%) and Antarctica (8%).
The glaciers of Greenland are also contributing to a rise in the global sea level faster than was previously believed.

Effects of global warming on humans

climate catastrophyclimate changeeffects of climate change
Sea level rises can influence human populations considerably in coastal and island regions, and natural environments like marine ecosystems.
Effects of climate change such as desertification and rising sea levels gradually erode livelihood and force communities to abandon traditional homelands for more accommodating environments.

Climate inertia

inertiaclimate change that they prevent is itself delayed
Each Celsius degree of temperature rise is estimated to trigger a sea level rise of approximately 2.3 m, but because of climate inertia this rise would happen over the next two millennia.
The global warming also causes thermal inertia, thermal expansion of the oceans, which contributes to sea level rise.

Marine ice sheet instability

The other major ice reservoir on East Antarctica that might rapidly retreat is the Wilkes Basin which is subject to marine ice sheet instability.
The mechanism was first proposed in the 1970s and was quickly identified as a means by which even gradual anthropogenic warming could lead to rapid sea level rise.

Retreat of glaciers since 1850

retreat of glaciersglacier retreatglacial retreat
Observational and modelling studies of mass loss from glaciers and ice caps indicate a contribution to sea-level rise of 0.2-0.4 mm per year, averaged over the 20th century.
The acceleration of the rate of retreat since 1995 of key outlet glaciers of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets may foreshadow a rise in sea level, which would affect coastal regions.

Ice sheet

ice sheetscontinental glacierice-sheet
The acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and melt of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), loss of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass contributed, respectively, about 0.21 ± 0.35 and 0.21 ± 0.07 mm/year to sea level rise between 1993 and 2003.

West Antarctic Ice Sheet

West AntarcticInland ice sheetWest Antarctic Ice Cap
Different satellite methods for measuring ice mass and change are in good agreement, and combining methods leads to more certainty about how the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, and the Antarctic Peninsula evolve.
Rapley said, "Parts of the Antarctic ice sheet that rest on bedrock below sea level have begun to discharge ice fast enough to make a significant contribution to sea level rise. Understanding the reason for this change is urgent in order to be able to predict how much ice may ultimately be discharged and over what timescale. Current computer models do not include the effect of liquid water on ice sheet sliding and flow, and so provide only conservative estimates of future behaviour."

Pine Island Glacier

Pine Island
The Thwaites and Pine Island glaciers have been identified to be potentially prone to these processes, since both glaciers bedrock topography gets deeper farther inland, exposing them to more warm water intrusion at the grounding line.
This speed up has meant that by the end of 2007 the Pine Island Glacier system had a negative mass balance of 46 gigatonnes per year, which is equivalent to 0.13 mm per year global sea level rise.

Amundsen Sea

AmundsenPine Island BayRussell Bay
Significant acceleration of outflow glaciers in the Amundsen Sea Embayment may have contributed to this increase.
Scientists have found that the flow of these glaciers has increased in recent years, if they were to melt completely global sea levels would rise by about 0.9–1.9 m (1–2 yards).

Coast

coastalcoastlineseaboard
Current and future climate change is set to have a number of impacts, particularly on coastal systems.
The Earth's natural processes, particularly sea level rises, waves and various weather phenomena, have resulted in the erosion, accretion and reshaping of coasts as well as flooding and creation of continental shelves and drowned river valleys (rias).

Antarctic ice sheet

AntarcticAntarcticaAntarctic ice cap
Each year about 8 mm of precipitation (liquid equivalent) falls on the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, mostly as snow, which accumulates and over time forms glacial ice.
If the transfer of the ice from the land to the sea is balanced by snow falling back on the land then there will be no net contribution to global sea levels.

James Hansen

James E. HansenJim HansenHansen
For instance, a 2016 study led by Jim Hansen concluded that based on past climate change data, sea level rise could accelerate exponentially in the coming decades, with a doubling time of 10, 20 or 40 years, respectively, raising the ocean by several meters in 50, 100 or 200 years.
Rahmstorf and coauthors show concern that sea levels are rising at the high range of the IPCC projections, and that it is due to thermal expansion and not from melting of the Greenland or Antarctic ice sheets.

Last Glacial Maximum

last ice ageice ageglacial maximum
Since the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago, the sea level has risen by more than 125 m, with rates varying from less than a mm/year to 40+ mm/year, as a result of melting ice sheets over Canada and Eurasia.
Sea level rise

Post-glacial rebound

isostatic reboundisostatic upliftglacial rebound
To get precise measurements for sea level, researchers studying the ice and the oceans on our planet factor in ongoing deformations of the solid Earth, in particular due to landmasses still rising from past ice masses retreating, and also the Earth's gravity and rotation.
During deglaciation, the melted ice water returns to the oceans, thus sea level in the ocean increases again.

Eric Rignot

A 2019 study however, using different methodology, concluded that East Antarctica is losing significant amounts of ice mass. The lead scientist Eric Rignot told CNN: "melting is taking place in the most vulnerable parts of Antarctica ... parts that hold the potential for multiple meters of sea level rise in the coming century or two."
His research group focuses on understanding the interactions of ice and climate, ice sheet mass balance, ice-ocean interactions in Greenland and Antarctica, and current/future contributions of ice sheets to sea level change.

Jakobshavn Glacier

Sermeq Kujalleq
Some of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, such as Jakobshavn Isbræ and Kangerlussuaq Glacier, are flowing faster into the ocean.
The ice stream's speed-up and near-doubling of ice flow from land into the ocean has increased the rate of sea level rise by about 0.06 mm per year, or roughly 4 percent of the 20th century rate of sea level rise.