Seawater

sea watersaltwatersalt watermarinesaltmarine waterocean watersalt-watersaltysea
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.wikipedia
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Sea salt

saltBlack lava saltmarine solar saltern
This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 g of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium and chloride ions).
Sea salt is salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.

Red Sea

Redthe Red SeaErythraean Sea
The most saline open sea is the Red Sea, where high rates of evaporation, low precipitation and low river run-off, and confined circulation result in unusually salty water.
The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

Fresh water

freshwaterfreshlimnic
Seawater is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 C) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume.
Though the term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water, it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs.

Dead Sea

The Dead SeaSalt SeaDead Sea Panorama Complex
The salinity in isolated bodies of water can be considerably greater still - about ten times higher in the case of the Dead Sea. Halley noted that most lakes that don't have ocean outlets (such as the Dead Sea and the Caspian Sea, see endorheic basin), have high salt content.
With a salinity of 342 g/kg, or 34.2% (in 2011), it is one of the world's saltiest bodies of water – 9.6 times as salty as the ocean – and has a density of 1.24 kg/litre, which makes swimming similar to floating.

Ocean

marineoceansmaritime
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 quintillion tonnes (1.4 long tons or 1.5 short tons), which is about 0.023% of Earth's total mass. Less than 3% is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, almost all of which is in the ocean.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The majority of water on Earth is sea water.

Chloride

Cl − chloridesCl
This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 g of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium and chloride ions).

Magnesium

MgMg 2+ Mg2+
The most abundant dissolved ions in seawater are sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfate and calcium.
To extract the magnesium, calcium hydroxide is added to seawater to form magnesium hydroxide precipitate.

Properties of water

waterH 2 Owater molecule
As the surface of salt water begins to freeze (at −1.9 °C for normal salinity seawater, 3.5%) the ice that forms is essentially salt-free, with about the same density as freshwater ice.

Bromide

Br − Brbromide ion
Bromide is present in typical seawater (35 PSU) with a concentration of around 65 mg/L, which is around 0.2% of all dissolved salts.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
At 25 °C and 1 atm of air, freshwater contains about 6.04 milliliters (mL) of oxygen per liter, and seawater contains about 4.95 mL per liter.

Vibrio

vibriosis Vibrio Illnessvibrio infection
Alkalotolerant marine bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Vibrio spp.
Typically found in salt water, Vibrio species are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores.

Abiogenesis

origin of lifeorigins of lifeformation
Small amounts of other substances are found, including amino acids at concentrations of up to 2 micrograms of nitrogen atoms per liter, which are thought to have played a key role in the origin of life.
In the deep hydrothermal vents, Everett Shock has found "there is an enormous thermodynamic drive to form organic compounds, as seawater and hydrothermal fluids, which are far from equilibrium, mix and move towards a more stable state."

PH

pH levelneutralpH value
At typical salinity, it freezes at about -2 C. The coldest seawater ever recorded (in a liquid state) was in 2010, in a stream under an Antarctic glacier, and measured -2.6 C. Seawater pH is typically limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4.
The pH of seawater is typically limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4.

Caspian Sea

CaspianCaspian regionCaspian Sea basin
Halley noted that most lakes that don't have ocean outlets (such as the Dead Sea and the Caspian Sea, see endorheic basin), have high salt content.
It has a salinity of approximately 1.2% (12 g/l), about a third of the salinity of most seawater.

Salinity

salinesalinitiespsu
On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM).

Vanadium

Vvanadium steelV 3 Si
The vanadyl ion is abundant in seawater, having an average concentration of 30 nM.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
Climate change, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, excess nutrients, and pollution in many forms are altering global oceanic geochemistry.
Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater.

Hydrothermal vent

hydrothermal ventsblack smokerblack smokers
Bacteria-like Archaea surprised marine microbiologists by their survival and thriving in extreme environments, such as the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor.
The water that issues from seafloor hydrothermal vents consists mostly of sea water drawn into the hydrothermal system close to the volcanic edifice through faults and porous sediments or volcanic strata, plus some magmatic water released by the upwelling magma.

Ocean acidification

acidificationacidified the oceansacidification of the oceans
Major trends include an increasing acidity, reduced subsurface oxygen in both near-shore and pelagic waters, rising coastal nitrogen levels, and widespread increases in mercury and persistent organic pollutants. One of the most striking features of this is ocean acidification, resulting from increased CO 2 uptake of the oceans related to higher atmospheric concentration of CO 2 and higher temperatures, because it severely affects coral reefs, mollusks, echinoderms and crustaceans (see coral bleaching).
The ratio of these species depends on factors such as seawater temperature, pressure and salinity (as shown in a Bjerrum plot).

Evaporator (marine)

evaporatorfresh-water distillingevaporators
Most ocean-going vessels desalinate potable water from seawater using processes such as vacuum distillation or multi-stage flash distillation in an evaporator, or, more recently, reverse osmosis.
An evaporator, distiller or distilling apparatus is a piece of ship's equipment used to produce fresh drinking water from sea water by distillation.

Coral reef

coral reefsbarrier reefreef
One of the most striking features of this is ocean acidification, resulting from increased CO 2 uptake of the oceans related to higher atmospheric concentration of CO 2 and higher temperatures, because it severely affects coral reefs, mollusks, echinoderms and crustaceans (see coral bleaching).
Reef life and oceanic processes create opportunities for exchange of seawater, sediments, nutrients and marine life.

Desalination

desalination plantwater desalinationdesalinization
Most ocean-going vessels desalinate potable water from seawater using processes such as vacuum distillation or multi-stage flash distillation in an evaporator, or, more recently, reverse osmosis.
The traditional process of desalination is distillation, i.e. boiling and re-condensation of seawater to leave salt and impurities behind.

Multi-stage flash distillation

Multi-Stage Flashmulti stage flashmultistage flash distillation
Most ocean-going vessels desalinate potable water from seawater using processes such as vacuum distillation or multi-stage flash distillation in an evaporator, or, more recently, reverse osmosis.
Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers.

Seabird

seabirdssea birdsea birds
Animals such as fish, whales, sea turtles, and seabirds, such as penguins and albatrosses have adapted to living in a high saline habitat.
In the words of two seabird scientists, "The one common characteristic that all seabirds share is that they feed in saltwater; but, as seems to be true with any statement in biology, some do not."