Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War2nd Boer WarSecond Anglo-Boer WarSouth AfricaSouth Africa 1899–1902warAnglo Boer WarBoer
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.wikipedia
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Kimberley, Northern Cape

KimberleyKimberlyKimberley, South Africa
The Boers were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mahikeng in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso, Magersfontein and Stormberg.
The city has considerable historical significance due to its diamond mining past and the siege during the Second Boer War.

Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Lord KitchenerKitchenerHerbert Kitchener
General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.

Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts

Lord RobertsFrederick RobertsRoberts
General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener.
He served in the Indian Rebellion, the Expedition to Abyssinia and the Second Anglo-Afghan War before leading British Forces to success in the Second Boer War.

South African Republic

TransvaalTransvaal RepublicZuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The country defeated the British in what is often referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British.

Mahikeng

MafekingMafikengMafeking Night
The Boers were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mahikeng in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso, Magersfontein and Stormberg.
It was the site of the Siege of Mafeking during the Second Boer War.

Opposition to the Second Boer War

opposedBoer Warcampaigner against
Inside the UK and its Empire there also was significant opposition to the Second Boer War.
Opposition to the Second Boer War (1899–1902) was a factor in the war.

British concentration camps

concentration campconcentration campsBritish operated such camps
The civilian farmers were relocated into concentration camps, where very large proportions died of disease, especially the children, who mostly lacked immunities.
British concentration camps refers to internment camps operated by the British in South Africa during the Second Boer War in years 1900–1902.

Louis Botha

BothaGeneral BothaGeneral Louis Botha
They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey.
A Boer war hero during the Second Boer War, he would eventually fight to have South Africa become a British Dominion.

Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal

Ladysmith LadysmithEmnambithi/Ladysmith
The Boers were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mahikeng in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso, Magersfontein and Stormberg.
In 1900, the unincorporated town of Oyster Harbour (established c. 1898) on the east coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, was renamed Ladysmith by James Dunsmuir, in honour of the British lifting the siege of Ladysmith in South Africa (28 February 1900) during the Second Boer War.

Treaty of Vereeniging

VereenigingTreaty of the Peace of Vereenigingconclusion of peace
The war ended in surrender and British terms with the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902.
The Treaty of Vereeniging (commonly referred to as Peace of Vereeniging) was the peace treaty, signed on 31 May 1902, that ended the Second Boer War between the South African Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State, on the one side, and the United Kingdom on the other.

Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
It ceased to exist as an independent Boer republic on 31 May 1902 with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Boer War.

British Army

ArmyBritishBritish troops
The onward marches of the British Army, well over 400,000 men, were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defence of their homeland.
Among these actions were the Seven Years' War, the American Revolutionary War, the Napoleonic Wars, the First and Second Opium Wars, the Boxer Rebellion, the New Zealand Wars, the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the first and second Boer Wars, the Fenian raids, the Irish War of Independence, interventions in Afghanistan (intended to maintain a buffer state between British India and the Russian Empire) and the Crimean War (to keep the Russian Empire at a safe distance by aiding Turkey).

Paul Kruger

KrugerPresident KrugerPresident Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger, the President of the South African Republic, issued an ultimatum on 9 October 1899, giving the British government 48 hours to withdraw all their troops from the borders of both the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, albeit Kruger had ordered Commandos to the Natal border in early September and Britain only had troops in garrison towns far from the border, failing which the Transvaal, allied to the Orange Free State, would declare war on the British government.
Nicknamed Oom Paul ("Uncle Paul"), he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the Transvaal and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902.

Siege of Kimberley

relief of KimberleyKimberleyrelief of Kimberly
In the first phase, the Boers mounted preemptive strikes into British-held territory in Natal and the Cape Colony, besieging the British garrisons of Ladysmith, Mafeking, and Kimberley.
The Siege of Kimberley took place during the Second Boer War at Kimberley, Cape Colony (present-day South Africa), when Boer forces from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal besieged the diamond mining town.

Siege of Ladysmith

Ladysmithdefence of LadysmithRelief of Ladysmith
In the first phase, the Boers mounted preemptive strikes into British-held territory in Natal and the Cape Colony, besieging the British garrisons of Ladysmith, Mafeking, and Kimberley.
The Siege of Ladysmith was a protracted engagement in the Second Boer War, taking place between 2 November 1899 and 28 February 1900 at Ladysmith, Natal.

Battle of Colenso

Colensoactions at Colensoassaulted in December
The Boers then won a series of tactical victories at Colenso, Magersfontein, and Spion Kop.
The Battle of Colenso was the third and final battle fought during the Black Week of the Second Boer War.

Joseph Chamberlain

ChamberlainJoseph The Right Honourable '''Joseph Chamberlain
The June 1899 negotiations in Bloemfontein failed, and in September 1899 British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain demanded full voting rights and representation for the uitlanders residing in the Transvaal.
He had major responsibility for causing the Second Boer War (1899–1902) in South Africa and was the government minister most responsible for the war effort.

Khaki election

khakiexploited by the governmenthence the nickname
Back home, Britain's Conservative government wanted to capitalize on this success and use it to maneuver an early general election, dubbed a "khaki election" to give the government another six years of power in London.
The reason for this name is that the election was held in the midst of the Second Boer War and khaki was the colour of the relatively new military uniform of the British Army that had been universally adopted in that war.

Johannesburg

Johannesburg, South AfricaJohannesburg, GautengJohannesburg WCT
Dr. Leander Starr Jameson, who led the raid, intended to encourage an uprising of the uitlanders in Johannesburg.
In the Second Boer War (1899–1902) saw British forces under Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, occupy the city on 30 May 1900 after a series of battles to the south-west of its then-limits, near present-day Krugersdorp.

Jameson Raid

Dr. Jameson's RaidAftermathfailed raid
Britain's expansionist ideas (notably propagated by Cecil Rhodes) as well as disputes over uitlander political and economic rights resulted in the failed Jameson Raid of 1895.
The raid was ineffective and no uprising took place, but it was an inciting factor in the Second Boer War and the Second Matabele War.

Pretoria

Pretoria, GautengPretoria, South AfricaSilverton
After Natal and the Cape Colony were secure, Britain was able to invade the Transvaal, and the republic's capital, Pretoria, was ultimately captured in June 1900.
The Second Boer War resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa.

Battle of Magersfontein

MagersfonteinMagersfontein Battlefield MuseumMagersfotein
The Boers then won a series of tactical victories at Colenso, Magersfontein, and Spion Kop.
The battle was the second of three battles during what became known as the Black Week of the Second Boer War.

Battle of Spion Kop

Spion KopSpioenkopa local regiment had suffered heavy losses
The Boers then won a series of tactical victories at Colenso, Magersfontein, and Spion Kop.
It was fought between the South African Republic and the Orange Free State on the one hand and British forces during the Second Boer War campaign to relieve Ladysmith.

Boer Commando

commandoscommandoBoer
Paul Kruger, the President of the South African Republic, issued an ultimatum on 9 October 1899, giving the British government 48 hours to withdraw all their troops from the borders of both the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, albeit Kruger had ordered Commandos to the Natal border in early September and Britain only had troops in garrison towns far from the border, failing which the Transvaal, allied to the Orange Free State, would declare war on the British government.
The term came into English usage during the Second Boer War of 1899-1902.

Roger Casement

Sir Roger Casementabuse of the indigenous tribes in the Putumayo regionAbuses against the Putumayo Indians
Salisbury was not alone in this concern over the treatment of black South Africans; Roger Casement, already well on the way to becoming an Irish Nationalist, was nevertheless happy to gather intelligence for the British against the Boers because of their cruelty to Africans.
Influenced by the Boer War and his investigation into colonial atrocities against indigenous peoples, Casement grew to distrust imperialism.