Second Crusade

SecondCrusadersCrusadea new crusadecrusaderhis crusadecrusader knightcrusadesnew crusadenew crusading impetus
The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.wikipedia
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Pope Eugene III

Pope Eugenius IIIEugene IIIEugenius III
The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other European nobles. Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, who issued the bull Quantum praedecessores on 1 December of that year, calling for a second crusade.
In response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade.

Siege of Edessa (1144)

Siege of Edessafall of Edessaconquered Edessa
The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi.
This event was the catalyst for the Second Crusade.

Manuel I Komnenos

Manuel I ComnenusManuel IManuel Comnenus
The main Western Christian source, Odo of Deuil, and Syriac Christian sources claim that the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos secretly hindered the crusaders' progress particularly in Anatolia, where he is alleged to have deliberately ordered Turks to attack them.
The passage of the potentially dangerous Second Crusade through his empire was adroitly managed.

First Crusade

CrusadersFirstCrusader
The county had been founded during the First Crusade (1096–1099) by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1098. After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101, there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa.
This left the crusader kingdoms vulnerable to Muslim reconquest during the Second and Third Crusades.

Third Crusade

crusadeThirdcrusaders
It would ultimately have a key influence on the fall of Jerusalem and give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century.
After the failure of the Second Crusade of 1147–1149, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria and engaged in a conflict with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt.

Louis VII of France

Louis VIIKing Louis VIIKing Louis VII of France
The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other European nobles. Louis VII of France, his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of Bernard to receive the pilgrims' cross.
Louis VII's reign saw the founding of the University of Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.

Siege of Lisbon

Lisbonconquest of Lisbonsiege
Travelling from England, by ship, to the Holy Land, the army stopped and helped the smaller (7,000) Portuguese army in the capture of Lisbon, expelling its Moorish occupants.
The Siege of Lisbon was one of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade—it was "the only success of the universal operation undertaken by the pilgrim army", i.e., the Second Crusade, according to the near contemporary historian Helmold, though others have questioned whether it was really part of that crusade.

Odo of Deuil

Eudes of Deuil
The main Western Christian source, Odo of Deuil, and Syriac Christian sources claim that the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos secretly hindered the crusaders' progress particularly in Anatolia, where he is alleged to have deliberately ordered Turks to attack them.
Eudes of Deuil or Odo, Odon(1110 – April 18, 1162) was a French historian and participant of the Second Crusade (1147–1149).

County of Edessa

EdessaCount of EdessaCountship of Edessa
The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi. After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101, there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa.
The fall of Edessa in 1144 was the first major setback for Outremer and provoked the Second Crusade.

Quantum praedecessores

papal bull
Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, who issued the bull Quantum praedecessores on 1 December of that year, calling for a second crusade.
Quantum praedecessores is a papal bull issued on December 1, 1145, by Pope Eugenius III, calling for a Second Crusade.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

EleanorQueen EleanorEleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine
Louis VII of France, his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of Bernard to receive the pilgrims' cross.
She led armies several times in her life and was a leader of the Second Crusade.

Council of Vézelay (1146)

Council of Vézelayparliament
A parliament was convoked at Vezelay in Burgundy in 1146, and Bernard preached before the assembly on 31 March.
Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – 20 August 1153), a French abbot, preached at Vézelay to encourage support for the Second Crusade.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

JerusalemKing of JerusalemCrusader
After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101, there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa.
The fall of Edessa shocked Europe, and a Second Crusade arrived in 1148.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick BarbarossaFrederick I BarbarossaFrederick I
At Speyer, Conrad III of Germany and his nephew, later Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard.
In early 1147, Frederick joined the Second Crusade.

Bernard of Clairvaux

St. BernardSaint Bernard of ClairvauxSaint Bernard
Louis consulted Bernard of Clairvaux, who referred him back to Eugene.
After the Christian defeat at the Siege of Edessa, the pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade.

Radulphe

Rudolf
As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Rudolf was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms and Speyer, with Rudolf claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land.
Radulphe (also spelled Radulph, Rodolphe, etc.) was a French monk who, without permission from his superiors, left his monastery in France and travelled to the Rhine Valley during the Second Crusade (1147–49) where he preached "that the Jews should be slain as the enemies of the Christian religion."

Damascus

Damascus, SyriaSultanate of DamascusDamascene
Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus.
In 1144 Zengi conquered Edessa, a crusader stronghold, which led to a new crusade from Europe in 1148.

Prester John

presence of ChristianityPriester Johannes
Hugh also told the Pope of an eastern Christian king, who, it was hoped, would bring relief to the crusader states: this is the first documented mention of Prester John.
Hugh was an emissary of Prince Raymond of Antioch, sent to seek Western aid against the Saracens after the Siege of Edessa; his counsel inspired Eugene to call for the Second Crusade.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks.
Manuel made several alliances with the Pope and Western Christian kingdoms, and he successfully handled the passage of the Second Crusade through his empire.

Conrad III of Germany

Conrad IIIConrad of HohenstaufenKing Conrad III
The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other European nobles. At Speyer, Conrad III of Germany and his nephew, later Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard.
In 1146, Conrad heard Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade at Speyer, and he agreed to join Louis VII in a great expedition to the Holy Land.

Principality of Antioch

AntiochPrince of AntiochAntioch, Principality of
After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101, there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa.
After the fall of Edessa in 1144, Antioch was attacked by Nur ad-Din during the Second Crusade.

Philip of Milly

Philip of NablusPhilip de Milly
Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late.
In 1148, upon the arrival of the Second Crusade, Philip participated in the council held at Acre, where he and the other native barons were overruled and the ill-fated decision to attack on Damascus was made.

Manasses of Hierges

ManassesManassès
Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late.
In response to the fall of Edessa, the Second Crusade arrived in Jerusalem in 1148.

Imad ad-Din Zengi

ZengiZangiImad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi
The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi.
This event led to the Second Crusade, and later Muslim chroniclers noted it as the start of the jihad against the Crusader states.

Lisbon

Lisbon, PortugalLisboaLissabon
The crusaders agreed to help the King attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to them the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners.
In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since then it has been the political, economic and cultural center of Portugal.