Second Industrial Revolution

Industrial RevolutionTechnological RevolutionGerman industrialismgrowth of German industrialismindustrializednew industriescapitalism of that timeelectricity and aviationindustrial ageindustrial development in Germany
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization and industrialization from the late 19th century into the early 20th century.wikipedia
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World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
Though a number of its events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer Process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is generally dated between 1870 and 1914 (the beginning of World War I).
It is considered to mark the end of the Second Industrial Revolution and the Pax Britannica.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the middle of 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdown in important inventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870.
Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution.

Industrialisation

industrializationindustrializedindustrialised
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization and industrialization from the late 19th century into the early 20th century.
The "Second Industrial Revolution" labels the later changes that came about in the mid-19th century after the refinement of the steam engine, the invention of the internal combustion engine, the harnessing of electricity and the construction of canals, railways and electric-power lines.

Alfred D. Chandler Jr.

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.Alfred ChandlerAlfred D. Chandler
The concept was introduced by Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution (1910), and was being used by economists such as Erick Zimmerman (1951), but David Landes' use of the term in a 1966 essay and in The Unbound Prometheus (1972) standardized scholarly definitions of the term, which was most intensely promoted by Alfred Chandler (1918–2007).
He argued that during the 19th century, the development of new systems based on steam power and electricity created a Second Industrial Revolution, which resulted in much more capital-intensive industries than had the industrial revolution of the previous century.

The Unbound Prometheus

The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present
The concept was introduced by Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution (1910), and was being used by economists such as Erick Zimmerman (1951), but David Landes' use of the term in a 1966 essay and in The Unbound Prometheus (1972) standardized scholarly definitions of the term, which was most intensely promoted by Alfred Chandler (1918–2007).
Its principal contribution is the argument in favor of the Second Industrial Revolution.

Henry Bessemer

Sir Henry BessemerBessemer Bessemer
The Bessemer process, invented by Sir Henry Bessemer, allowed the mass-production of steel, increasing the scale and speed of production of this vital material, and decreasing the labor requirements.
One of the most significant innovators of the Second Industrial Revolution, Bessemer also made over 100 other inventions in the fields of iron, steel and glass.

Electricity

electricalelectricelectrically
The work of Michael Faraday and others was pivotal in laying the foundations of the modern scientific understanding of electricity.
The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution.

Steel

steel industrysteelworkersteels
Though a number of its events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer Process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is generally dated between 1870 and 1914 (the beginning of World War I). The Bessemer process, invented by Sir Henry Bessemer, allowed the mass-production of steel, increasing the scale and speed of production of this vital material, and decreasing the labor requirements. While the First Revolution was marked by the introduction of such concepts as interchangeable parts and mass production, and was largely water-powered (especially in the United States), the Second was characterized by the build out of railroads, large-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraph, use of petroleum and the beginning of electrification.

Mass production

mass-producedmass-productionmass-produce
The Bessemer process, invented by Sir Henry Bessemer, allowed the mass-production of steel, increasing the scale and speed of production of this vital material, and decreasing the labor requirements. While the First Revolution was marked by the introduction of such concepts as interchangeable parts and mass production, and was largely water-powered (especially in the United States), the Second was characterized by the build out of railroads, large-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraph, use of petroleum and the beginning of electrification.

Long Depression

Depression of 1873–79depressioneconomic depression
See also: Long depression
It was the most severe in Europe and the United States, which had been experiencing strong economic growth fueled by the Second Industrial Revolution in the decade following the American Civil War.

Productivity improving technologies

Productivity improving technologies (historical)productivityachievements in technological consumption of labour and energy
Living standards improved significantly in the newly industrialized countries as the prices of goods fell dramatically due to the increases in productivity.
High productivity growth began during the late 19th century in what is sometimes call the Second Industrial Revolution.

Belle Époque

Belle EpoqueLa Belle ÉpoqueBelle-Époque
Belgium during the Belle Époque showed the value of the railways for speeding the Second Industrial Revolution.
Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic (beginning 1870), it was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, an apex of colonial empires, and technological, scientific, and cultural innovations.

Machine Age

Considered to be at a peak in the time between the first and second world wars, it forms a late part of the Second Industrial Revolution.

Gilded Age

The Gilded AgeGilded EraGilded-Age
The Gilded Age in America was based on heavy industry such as factories, railroads and coal mining.
The businessmen of the Second Industrial Revolution created industrial towns and cities in the Northeast with new factories, and hired an ethnically diverse industrial working class, many of them new immigrants from Europe.

Economic history of Germany

began to industrialiseeconomic climateGermany
The government played a powerful role in the industrialization of the German Empire founded by Otto von Bismarck in 1871 during a period known as the Second Industrial Revolution.

Economic history of the United States

American economic historyeconomic historyAmerican
An explosion of new discoveries and inventions took place, a process called the Second Industrial Revolution.

British Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural RevolutionAgriculturalagricultural improvement of the time
It hit the agricultural sector hard and was the most severe in Europe and the United States, which had been experiencing strong economic growth fuelled by the Second Industrial Revolution in the decade following the American Civil War.

Digital Revolution

computer revolutioncomputerizationThird Industrial Revolution
Subsequent industrial revolutions include the Digital revolution and Environmental revolution.

Standardization

standardstandardizedstandards
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization and industrialization from the late 19th century into the early 20th century.

Manufacturing

manufacturermanufacturemanufacturers
Though a number of its events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer Process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is generally dated between 1870 and 1914 (the beginning of World War I).

Interchangeable parts

interchangeableinterchangeabilityinterchangeability of parts
Though a number of its events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer Process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is generally dated between 1870 and 1914 (the beginning of World War I). While the First Revolution was marked by the introduction of such concepts as interchangeable parts and mass production, and was largely water-powered (especially in the United States), the Second was characterized by the build out of railroads, large-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraph, use of petroleum and the beginning of electrification.

Electrical telegraph

electric telegraphtelegraphtelegraph line
While the First Revolution was marked by the introduction of such concepts as interchangeable parts and mass production, and was largely water-powered (especially in the United States), the Second was characterized by the build out of railroads, large-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraph, use of petroleum and the beginning of electrification. Advancements in manufacturing and production technology enabled the widespread adoption of technological systems such as telegraph and railroad networks, gas and water supply, and sewage systems, which had earlier been concentrated to a few select cities.

Water supply

waterworkswaterwater supplies
Advancements in manufacturing and production technology enabled the widespread adoption of technological systems such as telegraph and railroad networks, gas and water supply, and sewage systems, which had earlier been concentrated to a few select cities.

Sewerage

sewersewerssewage system
Advancements in manufacturing and production technology enabled the widespread adoption of technological systems such as telegraph and railroad networks, gas and water supply, and sewage systems, which had earlier been concentrated to a few select cities.