Second Polish Republic

PolandPolishinterwar Polandinterwar periodRepublic of PolandSecond Republic of PolandPolish RepublicPolish Second Republicindependent Polandsovereign Poland
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland in the period between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).wikipedia
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Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland in the period between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
With the passing of prominence and prosperity, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century, and regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland in the period between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
World WarII is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.

National Independence Day (Poland)

Polish Independence DayNational Independence DayIndependence Day
Officially known as the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), the state was re-established in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I.
National Independence Day (Narodowe Święto Niepodległości) is a national day in Poland celebrated on 11 November to commemorate the anniversary of the restoration of Poland's sovereignty as the Second Polish Republic in 1918 from the German, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires.

Invasion of Poland

German invasion of Polandinvaded PolandSeptember Campaign
The Second Republic ceased to exist in 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic, marking the beginning of the European theatre of World War II.
The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, though Poland never formally surrendered.

Free City of Danzig

DanzigLeague of Nations High Commissioner for DanzigFree City of Gdańsk
When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were finalised in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union.
As the Treaty stated, the region was to remain separated from post-World War I Germany (the Weimar Republic) and from the newly independent nation of the Second Polish Republic ("interwar Poland"), but it was not an independent state.

Polish Corridor

Danzig CorridorCorridoraccess to the Baltic sea
It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia, known as the Polish Corridor.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as the Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany (Weimar Republic) from the province of East Prussia.

Polish diaspora

PoloniaPolishPolish community
At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country's borders.
The restored Second Polish Republic was home to the world's largest Jewish population as late as 1938 because of the massive influx of new refugees escaping persecution.

European theatre of World War II

European TheaterEuropean TheatreEuropean Theater of World War II
The Second Republic ceased to exist in 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic, marking the beginning of the European theatre of World War II.
Germany and the Soviet Union were sworn enemies, but following the Munich Agreement, which effectively handed over Czechoslovakia (a French and Soviet ally, and the only remaining presidential democracy in Central Europe) to Germany, political realities allowed the Soviet Union to sign a non-aggression pact (the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact) including a secret clause partitioning Poland, the Baltic Republics and Finland between the two spheres of influence.

Interwar period

interbelluminterwarinterwar years
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland in the period between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
There were numerous new nations in Eastern Europe, some small in size, such as Lithuania or Latvia, and some large and vast, such as Poland and Yugoslavia.

Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustro-HungarianAustria–Hungary
German and Austro-Hungarian armies seized the Russian-ruled part of what became Poland.
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.

Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918)

Kingdom of PolandPolandRegency Kingdom of Poland
In a failed attempt to resolve the Polish question as quickly as possible, Berlin set up a German puppet state on 5 November 1916, with a governing Provisional Council of State and (from 15 October 1917) a Regency Council (Rada Regencyjna Królestwa Polskiego).
Following the Armistice of 11 November 1918 signed by the Allies with imperial Germany, which ended World War I, the area became part of the nascent Second Polish Republic.

Józef Piłsudski

PiłsudskiJozef PilsudskiPilsudski
On Sunday, 10 November at 7 a.m., Józef Piłsudski, newly freed from 16 months in a German prison in Magdeburg, returned by train to Warsaw.
]]Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman who served as the Chief of State (1918–22) and First Marshal of Poland (from 1920).

Ignacy Daszyński

Ignacy Daszynski
The same day the Socialist, Ignacy Daszyński, set up a Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland (Tymczasowy Rząd Ludowy Republiki Polskiej) in Lublin.
Ignacy Ewaryst Daszyński (Zbaraż, 26 October 1866 – 31 October 1936, Bystra Śląska) was a Polish socialist politician, journalist, and very briefly Prime Minister of the Second Polish Republic's first government, formed in Lublin in 1918.

Lithuanians

LithuanianLithuanian peopleLithuanian diaspora
Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ruthenians; 10% Ashkenazi Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% Czechs and Lithuanians.
However, the eastern parts of Lithuania, including the Vilnius Region, were annexed by Poland, while the Klaipėda Region was taken over by Nazi Germany in 1939.

Polish–Ukrainian War

Polish-Ukrainian WarPolish-UkrainianUkrainian-Polish War
Soon afterward, the Polish–Ukrainian War broke out in Lwów (1 November 1918) between forces of the Military Committee of Ukrainians and the Polish irregular units made up of students known as the Lwów Eaglets, who were later supported by the Polish Army (see Battle of Lwów (1918), Battle of Przemyśl (1918)).
The Polish–Ukrainian War of November 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces (both the West Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian People's Republic).

Adam Koc

Koc
Piłsudski, together with Colonel Kazimierz Sosnkowski, was greeted at Warsaw's railway station by Regent Zdzisław Lubomirski and by Colonel Adam Koc.
In the Second Polish Republic, Adam Koc joined the Polish Armed Forces, in December 1919, where he was given command of the 201 Infantry Regiment of Warsaw's Defense, which later became a Volunteer Division (31 July - 3 December 1920).

Lviv

LwówLembergLvov
Soon afterward, the Polish–Ukrainian War broke out in Lwów (1 November 1918) between forces of the Military Committee of Ukrainians and the Polish irregular units made up of students known as the Lwów Eaglets, who were later supported by the Polish Army (see Battle of Lwów (1918), Battle of Przemyśl (1918)). The cultural hubs of interwar Poland – Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań, Wilno and Lwów – became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education.
Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic.

Warsaw

WarszawaWarsaw, PolandWarschau
The cultural hubs of interwar Poland – Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań, Wilno and Lwów – became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education.
Germany did so, and underground leader Piłsudski returned to Warsaw on 11 November and set up what became the Second Polish Republic, with Warsaw as the capital.

Polish–Lithuanian War

Polish-Lithuanian WarPolishagainst Poland
Soon afterwards the Polish–Lithuanian War (ca 1919-1920) began, and in August 1919 Polish-speaking residents of Upper Silesia initiated a series of three Silesian Uprisings.
The Polish–Lithuanian War was an armed conflict between newly independent Lithuania and Poland in the aftermath of World War I.

Polish–Soviet War

Polish-Soviet WarPolish-Bolshevik WarPolish-Bolshevist War
The most critical military conflict of that period, however, the Polish–Soviet War (1919-1921), ended in a decisive Polish victory.
The Polish–Soviet War (14 February 1919 – 18 October 1920) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, the Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) over a region comparable to today's westernmost Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The Second Republic ceased to exist in 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic, marking the beginning of the European theatre of World War II. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were finalised in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union.
On March 1921, during a related conflict with Poland, the Peace of Riga was signed, splitting disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between the Republic of Poland and Soviet Russia.

Naczelnik Państwa

Chief of StateHead of StateNaczelnik Panstwa
On 14 November, the Council dissolved itself and transferred all its authority to Piłsudski as Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa).
Naczelnik Państwa (, Chief of State) was the title of Poland's head of state in the early years of the Second Polish Republic.

Polish–Czechoslovak War

Polish-Czechoslovak Warinvaded the areaagainst the Czech offensive
In January 1919 Czechoslovakian forces attacked Polish units in the area of Zaolzie (see Polish–Czechoslovak War).
The Poland–Czechoslovakia War, also known mostly in Czech sources as the Seven-day war (Sedmidenní válka) was a military confrontation between Czechoslovakia and Poland over the territory of Cieszyn Silesia in 1919.

Greater Poland uprising (1918–19)

Greater Poland UprisingGreater Poland Uprising (1918–1919)Great Poland Uprising
Meanwhile, in western Poland, another war of national liberation began under the banner of the Greater Poland uprising (1918–19).
The uprising had a significant effect on the Treaty of Versailles, which granted a reconstituted Second Polish Republic the area won by the Polish insurrectionists.

Germans

Germanethnic Germanethnic Germans
Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ruthenians; 10% Ashkenazi Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% Czechs and Lithuanians.
This idea was initially welcomed by many ethnic Germans in Sudetenland, Austria, Poland, Danzig and western Lithuania, particularly the Germans from Klaipeda (Memel).