A report on Second Sino-Japanese War

(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident
Japanese Empire's territorial expansion
A baby sits in the remains of a Shanghai train station on 'Bloody Saturday', 1937
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek announced the Kuomintang policy of resistance against Japan at Lushan on 10 July 1937, three days after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Japanese landing near Shanghai, November 1937
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Soviet embassy in Nanjing is being burned down by arson on 1 January 1938.
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto
National Revolutionary Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
Map showing the extent of Japanese occupation in 1941 (in red)
Theaters (military operational regions) of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army from late 1938 to early 1940
Wang Jingwei and officers of the Collaborationist Chinese Army
Chinese soldiers in house-to-house fighting in the Battle of Taierzhuang, March–April 1938
National Revolutionary Army soldiers march to the front in 1939.
Eighth Route Army Commander Zhu De with a KMT "Blue Sky, White Sun" emblem cap
115th Division of the Eighth Route Army Lieutenant General (NRA rank) Lin Biao in NRA uniform
War declaration against Japan by the Chongqing Nationalist Government on 9 December 1941
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Madame Chiang with Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell in 1942, Burma
A United States poster from the United China Relief organization advocating aid to China.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II.
H. H. Kung and Adolf Hitler in Berlin
I-16 with Chinese insignia. The I-16 was the main fighter plane used by the Chinese Air Force and Soviet volunteers.
Flying Tigers Commander Claire Lee Chennault
A "blood chit" issued to American Volunteer Group pilots requesting all Chinese to offer rescue and protection
Free Thai, American and Chinese military officers in China during the war
The India–China airlift delivered approximately 650,000 tons of materiel to China at a cost of 1,659 men and 594 aircraft.
French colonial troops retreating to the Chinese border after the Japanese coup d'état in March 1945
Chinese Muslim cavalry
Chinese Muslim soldiers
WWII victory parade at Chongqing on 3 September 1945
Japanese troops surrendering to the Chinese
The Chinese return to Liuzhou in July 1945.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
China War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial Museum on the site where the Marco Polo Bridge Incident took place
The Taiwan Strait and the island of Taiwan
Casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese bombing of Chongqing. More than 5,000 civilians died during the first two days of air raids in 1939.
Japanese war crime against a Chinese POW
Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces with gas masks and rubber gloves during a chemical attack near Chapei in the Battle of Shanghai
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang

Military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan.

- Second Sino-Japanese War
(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India

205 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Chiang in 1943

Chiang Kai-shek

46 links

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, he mobilized China for the Second Sino-Japanese War.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

41 links

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

The exact causes of World War II are debated, but contributing factors included the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Spanish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, the rise of fascism in Europe and rising European tensions since World War I.

Empire of Japan

30 links

Historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

Historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
 style = padding-center: 0.6em; text-align: center;
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
 style = padding-center: 0.6em; text-align: center;
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Japan's armed forces initially achieved large-scale military successes during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and the Pacific War.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

29 links

Commonly recognised as the official designation of China from 1912 to 1949, when it was a country in East Asia based in Mainland China, prior to the relocation of its central government to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War.

Commonly recognised as the official designation of China from 1912 to 1949, when it was a country in East Asia based in Mainland China, prior to the relocation of its central government to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War.

Land controlled by the Republic of China (1946) shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of the Republic of China.
Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic
Major Chinese warlord coalitions during the "Nanjing Decade".
Cooperation with Germany
China had been at war with Japan since 1931.
Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China during 1930s
Beiyang Army troops on parade
The NRA during World War II
Boat traffic and development along Suzhou Creek, Shanghai, 1920
A 10 Custom Gold Units bill, 1930

Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 when a skirmish between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army culminated in a full-scale invasion by Japan.

Kuomintang

30 links

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Revolutionary Army attacking Nanjing in 1911
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925
KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in 1938
The National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition
The KMT in Tihwa, Sinkiang in 1942
Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino-Japanese War
The retrocession of Taiwan in Taipei on 25 October 1945
The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City (1949–2006), whose imposing structure, directly facing the Presidential Office Building, was seen as a symbol of the party's wealth and dominance
Pan-blue supporters at a rally during the 2004 presidential election
Kuomintang public service center in Shilin, Taipei
Lien Chan (middle) and Wu Po-hsiung (second left) and the KMT touring the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China when the Pan-Blue coalition visited the mainland in 2005
KMT headquarters in Taipei City before the KMT Central Committee moved in June 2006 to a much more modest Bade building, having sold the original headquarters to private investors of the EVA Airways Corporation
KMT Kinmen headquarters office in Jincheng Township, Kinmen County
KMT Building in Vancouver's Chinatown, British Columbia, Canada
KMT branch office in Pingzhen District, Taoyuan City
The KMT maintains offices in some of the Chinatowns of the world and its United States party headquarters are located in San Francisco Chinatown, on Stockton Street directly across the Chinese Six Companies
KMT Eastern U.S. headquarters is in New York Chinatown
KMT office of Australasia in Sydney, Australia
From left to right, KMT members pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition: Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, General Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and General Bai Chongxi
Malaysian Chinese Association
Vietnamese Kuomintang
People's Action Party of Vietnam
Taipei Grand Mosque
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924

From 1937 to 1945, the KMT-ruled Nationalist government led China through the Second Sino-Japanese War against Japan.

The Pacific War Council as photographed on 12 October 1942. Pictured are representatives from the United States (seated), Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, China, the Netherlands, and the Philippine Commonwealth

Pacific War

18 links

The theater of World War II that was fought in Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and Oceania.

The theater of World War II that was fought in Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and Oceania.

The Pacific War Council as photographed on 12 October 1942. Pictured are representatives from the United States (seated), Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, China, the Netherlands, and the Philippine Commonwealth
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theater from 1942 to 1945
A mass grave of Chinese prisoners killed by the Imperial Japanese Army in the 1937 Nanjing Massacre
Chinese casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese aerial bombing of Chongqing
USS Arizona (BB-39) burned for two days after being hit by a Japanese bomb in the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Japanese aerial photo of battleship HMS Prince of Wales (top) and battlecruiser HMS Repulse under attack.
British forces surrender Singapore to the Japanese, February 1942
The Bombing of Darwin, Australia, 19 February 1942
Surrender of US forces at Corregidor, Philippines, May 1942
Dutch and Australian PoWs at Tarsau, in Thailand in 1943. 22,000 Australians were captured by the Japanese; 8,000 died as prisoners of war.
US General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of Allied forces in the South-West Pacific Area, with Australian Prime Minister John Curtin
Japanese advance until mid-1942
A B-25 bomber takes off from USS Hornet (CV-8) as part of the Doolittle Raid.
The aircraft carrier USS Lexington (CV-2) explodes on 8 May 1942, several hours after being damaged by a Japanese carrier air attack.
under attack by B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers
US Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign in November 1942.
Chinese troops during the Battle of Changde in November 1943
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and General Joseph Stilwell, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Allied attack routes against the Empire of Japan
American forces landing at Rendova Island, June, 1943
The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theaters: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943
The torpedoed, as seen through the periscope of an American submarine, USS Nautilus (SS-168), in June 1942
The, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed
Chinese forces on M3A3 Stuart tanks on the Ledo Road
British Indian troops during the Battle of Imphal
Marines fire captured mountain gun during the attack on Garapan, Saipan, 21 June 1944.
US Marines during mopping up operations on Peleliu, September 1944
The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku and two destroyers under attack in the Battle of the Philippine Sea
The four engagements in the Battle of Leyte Gulf
General Douglas MacArthur wading ashore at Leyte
US troops approaching Japanese positions near Baguio, Luzon, 23 March 1945
Royal Marines landing at Ramree
British soldiers patrolling the ruins of a Burmese town during the advance on Mandalay, January 1945
Iwo Jima location map
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, an iconic photograph taken by Joe Rosenthal on February 23, 1945, depicts six United States Marines raising a US flag atop Mount Suribachi.
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) burns after being hit by two kamikazes. At Okinawa, the kamikazes caused 4,900 American deaths.
US Marines pass a dead Japanese soldier in a destroyed village on Okinawa, April 1945
US LVTs land Australian soldiers at Balikpapan on 7 July 1945.
American B-29 Superfortresses drop incendiary bombs over the port city of Kobe, June 1945
The mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet (18 km) into the air on the morning of 9 August 1945
Pacific Fleet marines of the Soviet Navy hoist the Soviet naval ensign in Port Arthur, on 1 October 1945.
Douglas MacArthur signs the formal Japanese Instrument of Surrender on USS Missouri (BB-63), 2 September 1945.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943
Indian prisoners of war shot and bayoneted by Japanese soldiers
IJA soldiers after a suicide charge on US Marine positions in Guadalcanal
Charred remains of civilians killed in the 10 March firebombing of Tokyo, codenamed Operation Meetinghouse, which killed an estimated 100,000 people, March 1945
Australian POW Sergeant Leonard G. Siffleet of M Special Unit being beheaded by a Japanese officer, Yasuno Chikao, on 24 October 1943. AWM photo.
A Filipino woman and child killed by Japanese forces in the Manila massacre
A young Chinese girl from a Japanese 'comfort battalion' being interviewed by a British officer. Rangoon, Burma, 1945
American stretcher party carrying a wounded soldier through a devastated Manila street, 23 February 1945
The damaged by American carrier aircraft in the Sibuyan Sea.

It was geographically the largest theater of the war, including the vast Pacific Ocean theater, the South West Pacific theater, the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Soviet–Japanese War.

Flag of the National Revolutionary Army (known as the Republic of China Army after the 1947 Constitution)

National Revolutionary Army

19 links

The military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in China.

The military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in China.

Flag of the National Revolutionary Army (known as the Republic of China Army after the 1947 Constitution)
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of China.
NRA troops against Sun Chuanfang's private army preparing to defend Shanghai.
National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition.
The NRA during World War II
A Chinese propaganda poster depicting the National Revolutionary Army.
Elite German-trained divisions of National Revolutionary Army before the Battle of Wuhan
A platoon of the National Revolutionary Army marching in British helmets during a parade in Burma in 1943.
A Chinese Nationalist soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division from the X Force, boarding planes in Burma bound for China, May 1944.
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang.
A Chinese Nationalist Army soldier equipped with a German M35 helmet and a ZB vz. 26.
German-equipped Chinese troops practicing a march at the Chinese Military Academy at Chengtu in 1944.
US-equipped Chinese Army in India marching.

Originally organized with Soviet aid as a means for the KMT to unify China during the Warlord Era, the National Revolutionary Army fought major engagements in the Northern Expedition against the Chinese Beiyang Army warlords, in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) against the Imperial Japanese Army and in the Chinese Civil War against the People's Liberation Army.

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Special Naval Landing Forces troops in gas masks prepare for an advance in the rubble of Shanghai.

Battle of Shanghai

14 links

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Special Naval Landing Forces troops in gas masks prepare for an advance in the rubble of Shanghai.
Ōyama Incident on August 9, 1937
Zhabei on fire
Exterior of Shanghai's Cathay Hotel after an ROC NRA bombing run on August 14, 1937
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Japanese amphibious landings
A famous photo entitled "Bloody Saturday", showing a burned and terrified baby in Shanghai's South Station following an IJN aerial attack against civilians, August 28, 1937
Chinese troops making a charge in Luodian
Chinese soldiers near a bombed-out building
Japanese troops reaching the destroyed North Station in downtown Shanghai
A Japanese casualty is evacuated during fighting at the Suzhou Creek.
Japanese troops crawling through the ruins
Japanese rear guard units landing supplies in Jinshanwei
Chinese treating casualties from Japanese gas attacks
Iwane Matsui in Nanjing
Japanese soldiers pose next to a bronze statue of Sun Yat-sen after capturing Shanghai.
China's officer corps took a particularly strong hit in the battle.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek on the frontline
Chinese machine gunners in Shanghai

The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Clockwise from top: communist troops at the Battle of Siping; Muslim soldiers of the NRA; Mao Zedong in the 1930s; Chiang Kai-shek inspecting soldiers; CCP general Su Yu inspecting the troops shortly before the Menglianggu campaign

Chinese Civil War

23 links

Fought between the Kuomintang -led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), lasting intermittently after 1927.

Fought between the Kuomintang -led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), lasting intermittently after 1927.

Clockwise from top: communist troops at the Battle of Siping; Muslim soldiers of the NRA; Mao Zedong in the 1930s; Chiang Kai-shek inspecting soldiers; CCP general Su Yu inspecting the troops shortly before the Menglianggu campaign
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of the Republic of China.
NRA soldiers marching
NRA troops firing artillery at Communist forces
Japanese occupation (red) of eastern China near the end of the war, and Communist bases (striped)
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in Chongqing in 1945.
Shangdang Campaign, September–October 1945
Map showing Three Campaigns during the Chinese Civil War
Nationalist warplanes being prepared for an air raid on Communist bases
The PLA enters Beijing in the Pingjin Campaign.
Chinese FT tanks
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and finally, Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Mao Zedong's proclamation of the founding of the People's Republic in 1949
Communist conquest of Hainan Island in 1950
"Forget not that you are in Jǔ"--a rock in Quemoy Island with Chiang Kai-shek's calligraphy signifying the retaking of one's homeland
Monument in memory of the crossing of the Yangtze in Nanjing
Lockheed U-2C 56-6691 wreckage (pilot Chang Liyi) on display at the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution, Beijing
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
The situation in China in 1929: After the Northern Expedition, the KMT had direct control over east and central China, while the rest of China proper as well as Manchuria was under the control of warlords loyal to the Nationalist government.
Map showing the communist-controlled Soviet Zones of China during and after the encirclement campaigns
Route(s) taken by Communist forces during the Long March
A Communist leader addressing survivors of the Long March
Situation in 1947
Situation in the fall of 1948
Situation in the winter of 1948 and 1949
Situation in April to October 1949
Taiwanese side "Reunification under the Three Principles of the People“.
thumb|The Soviet Red Army invaded Manchuria in August 1945.
Chinese Communist soldiers march north to occupy rural Manchuria, 1945.

From 1937 to 1945, hostilities were mostly put on hold as the Second United Front fought the Japanese invasion of China with eventual help from the Allies of World War II, but even then co-operation between the KMT and CCP was minimal and armed clashes between them were common.

Aerial photo of the Marco Polo Bridge. Wanping Fortress is on the opposite side of the river.

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

13 links

July 1937 battle between China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army.

July 1937 battle between China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army.

Aerial photo of the Marco Polo Bridge. Wanping Fortress is on the opposite side of the river.
226x226px
Japanese forces bombarding Wanping Fortress, 1937
Damage from the Japanese shells on the wall of Wanping Fortress is marked with a memorial plaque now. The texts on the stone drums below summarizes the history of the war that followed the incident.

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident is generally regarded as the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War.