Second United Front

United FrontSecond Kuomintang-CCP United Fronta nominal alliancea temporary and uneasy nominal alliancea united front against Japanaligned with the CommunistsallianceAnti-Japanese United FrontChinese United Frontnominal alliance
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.wikipedia
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Chinese Civil War

civil warCommunist RevolutionChina
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
From 1937 to 1945, hostilities were put on hold, and the Second United Front fought the Japanese invasion of China with eventual help from the World War II Allies.

Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai ShekJiang JieshiChiang Kaishek
In 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union and its cooperation with the CCP during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China.
Trying to avoid a war with Japan while hostilities with CCP continued, he was kidnapped in the Xi'an Incident and obliged to form an Anti-Japanese United Front with the CCP.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
The Second United Front was established between the CPC and the KMT to tackle the invasion.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
The Second United Front between the KMT and CPC was never truly unified, as each side was preparing for a showdown with the other once the Japanese were driven out.

Kuomintang

KMTNationalistnationalists
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
The opponents regarded this visit as the prelude of the third KMT-CPC cooperation, after the First and Second United Front.

Chinese Red Army

Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red ArmyRed ArmyFirst Red Army
In 1936, Chiang Kai-shek assigned the "young marshal" Zhang Xueliang the duty of suppressing the Red Army of the CCP.
The Red Army was incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army as part of the Second United Front with the Kuomintang to fight against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937.

Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-LiangCheung Hok-leungYoung Marshal
In 1936, Chiang Kai-shek assigned the "young marshal" Zhang Xueliang the duty of suppressing the Red Army of the CCP.
He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria.

Eighth Route Army

8th Route Army18th Army GroupEighth Army
As a result of the truce between KMT and CCP, the Red Army was reorganized into the New Fourth Army and the 8th Route Army, which were placed under the command of the National Revolutionary Army.
The Eighth Route Army was created from the Chinese Red Army on September 22, 1937, when the Chinese Communists and Chinese Nationalists formed the Second United Front against Japan at the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, as World War II is known in China.

New Fourth Army

Fourth ArmyNew Fourth Armies
As a result of the truce between KMT and CCP, the Red Army was reorganized into the New Fourth Army and the 8th Route Army, which were placed under the command of the National Revolutionary Army.
After the Xi'an Incident, the Kuomintang led by Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong formed a United Front against Japan, which was already in control of Manchuria and pushing into North China.

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
The communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong also began to focus most of their energy on building up their sphere of influence wherever opportunities were presented, mainly through rural mass organizations, administrative, land and tax reform measures favoring poor peasants; while the KMT allocated many divisions of its regular army to carry out military blockade of the CPC areas in an attempt to neutralize the spread of Communist influence until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan.

First United Front

United Frontalliance between the two partiesCCP-KMT United Front
This initiated a civil war between the two parties that lasted until the Second United Front was formed in 1936 to prepare for the coming Second Sino-Japanese War.

United front

UFanti-fascist unityPopular United Front
The Chinese organized a Second United Front (1937–1943) to fight the Japanese during World War II.

Shanghai massacre

Shanghai massacre of 1927White TerrorApril 12 Incident
In 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union and its cooperation with the CCP during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China.

National Revolutionary Army

Chinese Nationalist ArmyNationalist ArmyNRA
In 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union and its cooperation with the CCP during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China. As a result of the truce between KMT and CCP, the Red Army was reorganized into the New Fourth Army and the 8th Route Army, which were placed under the command of the National Revolutionary Army.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
In 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union and its cooperation with the CCP during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China.

Northern Expedition

North ExpeditionChinese RevolutionNorthern Expedition (1926–1927)
In 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union and its cooperation with the CCP during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China.

Mukden Incident

Manchurian IncidentSeptember 18 IncidentMukden
In 1931 the Japanese launched its invasion and subsequent occupation of Manchuria.

Pacification of Manchukuo

Japanese occupation of Manchuriaanti-bandit operationsbombing in northeastern China
In 1931 the Japanese launched its invasion and subsequent occupation of Manchuria.

Manchuria

ManchurianThree Eastern ProvincesNortheast
In 1931 the Japanese launched its invasion and subsequent occupation of Manchuria.

Encirclement campaigns

encirclement campaigna series of campaignscampaigns against the Communists
Even though his campaigns against the Communists resulted in their retreat and a 90% reduction in their fighting strength, he was unable to eliminate their forces entirely, and his policy of "internal pacification before external resistance" was very unpopular with the Chinese populace, which caused widespread resentment against the ruling KMT leadership and its regional warlord allies.

Long March

The Long MarchChangzhengChinese Long March
Even though his campaigns against the Communists resulted in their retreat and a 90% reduction in their fighting strength, he was unable to eliminate their forces entirely, and his policy of "internal pacification before external resistance" was very unpopular with the Chinese populace, which caused widespread resentment against the ruling KMT leadership and its regional warlord allies.

Xi'an

XianXi’anXi'an, China
On 12 December 1936, a deeply disgruntled Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek in Xi'an to force an end to the conflict between KMT and CCP.

China Democratic League

Chinese Democratic LeagueCDLChina National Democratic Association
The China Democratic League, an umbrella organization for three political parties and three political pressure groups, also agreed to take part in the united front formed by KMT and CCP.

Advocacy group

interest grouppressure grouplobby group
The China Democratic League, an umbrella organization for three political parties and three political pressure groups, also agreed to take part in the united front formed by KMT and CCP.