Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War

11th-century conflict between the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and the Khitan-led Liao dynasty of China near what is now the border between China and North Korea.

- Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War

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Kaesong

Special city in the southern part of North Korea , and the capital of Korea during the Taebong kingdom and subsequent Goryeo dynasty.

Special city in the southern part of North Korea , and the capital of Korea during the Taebong kingdom and subsequent Goryeo dynasty.

Kim Il Sung statue in Kaesong, as it appeared in October 2012. The statue has since been updated and a statue of Kim Jong Il has been added next to the Kim Il Sung statue.
Goryeo Museum
Namdaemun
A meal for visitors at Tongil restaurant, Kaesong
Pakyon Falls

In 1010, the first year of Hyeonjong of Goryeo's reign, the palace and houses were almost burnt down during the second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, so in 1018, Gaesong-bu was relegated for the "bu" system, and became to govern the three hyeon unites of Jeongju, Deoksu, and Gangeum.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000

Liao dynasty

Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
The location of Balhae in the year 900
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Khitan man in tomb painting in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia
Khitan tomb mural in Inner Mongolia – attendants holding a musical instrument, bow and arrows, boots, and a falcon
Liao or Jin dynasty (1115–1234) helmets and mask
Zhuoxie tu, a 10th-century painting of a rest stop for the khan
Khitan boys and girls
Khitan holding a mace
The King of Dongdan Goes Forth (東丹王出行圖), scroll, light colors on silk. 146.8 x 77.3 cm. National Palace Museum, Taipei. Attributed to Li Zanhua (李贊華 909–946), but possibly a later artist.
Khitans hunting with birds of prey, 9–10th centuries
Geyuan Temple Wenshu Hall built in 966 is the oldest extant Liao building
Liao silk boots
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 993
Khitan invasion of Song in 1004
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 1018
Liao phoenix and dragon crowns
Liao dynasty dragon crown
Liao dynasty crown – side
Liao dynasty crown – back
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built by Emperor Daozong of Liao in 1056 at the site of his grandmother's family home.
Liao dynasty gold wire phoenix crown
Liao funerary mask and crown (female)
Gilt silver crown, excavated in 1986 from the tomb of Princess of Chen and her husband in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia.
Gilt bronze statue of the six-tusked elephant holding the throne of Puxian (Samantabhadra), the Bodhisattva of Universal Virtue, c. 1000 Liao dynasty
Epitaph of Xiao Guanyin, the wife of Emperor Daozong of Liao, in Khitan small script
Collapse of the Liao dynasty (1117–1124)
Depiction of Xiongnu cavalry in the Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, commissioned by Emperor Gaozong of Song. While the subjects are the Xiongnu, the hairstyle depicted is distinctly Khitan, and likely based on northern steppe peoples contemporary to the Song.
Miniature model of a Khitan tent found in the Hadatu tomb in 1973
Fragment of a tomb mural showing a Khitan boy
Aguda, posthumously Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jurchen Jin dynasty
The Tianning Temple Pagoda, a Buddhist structure built at Liao Nanjing ("Southern Capital", modern Beijing) in 1120 during the last years of the Liao dynasty
The Qara Khitai empire in 1160
Liao paiza authorizing an imperial decree with the utmost urgency
Liao seal with the Chinese inscription 臨潢府軍器庫之印 "Seal of the Armoury of Linhuang Prefecture"
Horse and Archer, believed to have been painted by Yelü Bei.
Liao dynasty cavalry armour
Liao silver coin in Khitan large script translated as "天朝萬順" (Heavenly Dynasty — Myriad [affairs are] Favourable).
The only extant manuscript in the Khitan language, Folio 9 of manuscript codex Nova N 176
Female funerary mask and crown from the Liao dynasty
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue depicting Guanyin in the Water Moon pose, which raises the right knee and rests the right arm on top of it, symbolizing the divinity of the Pure land, Guanyin's personal paradise, which Guanyin puts off going to until s/he has saved humanity.
One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans, sancai, early 12th century
Liao gold waist ornament
Khitan hunters in a painting by Chen Juzhong, 1196
A brick stupa in the Khitan city of Hedong (Bars-Hot)
Luohan statue, Liao dynasty, 11th century
Liao era bronze figure of Gautama Buddha
Bronze Guanyin statue from the Chinese section of the Supreme Capital
Liao era painted wooden statue of Guanyin
Bronze statue of Guanyin, Liao dynasty, 10th century
Rebellion of Li Jinzhong and Sun Wanrong against the Tang dynasty in 696-697
Khitan crown (female), silver
Liao tomb mural showing Khitan men with banners, drums, and maces
Liao burial dress made of metal wire

The Khitans immediately sent an army of 400,000 men to Goryeo to punish Gang Jo; however, after an initial period of military success and the breakdown of several attempts at peace negotiations, Goryeo and the Khitans entered a decade of continuous warfare.

Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War

11th-century conflict between the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and the Khitan-led Liao dynasty of China near what is now the border between China and North Korea.

11th-century conflict between the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and the Khitan-led Liao dynasty of China near what is now the border between China and North Korea.

The Goryeo–Khitan Wars began in 993 with the first campaign and continued with the second campaign.

First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War

10th-century conflict between the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and the Khitan-led Liao dynasty of China near what is now the border between China and North Korea.

10th-century conflict between the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and the Khitan-led Liao dynasty of China near what is now the border between China and North Korea.

It occurred in 993 and was the first of the Goryeo-Khitan Wars, which were continued with the Second Goryeo-Khitan War (1010) and Third Goryeo-Khitan War (1018).

Satellite image of Korea

Military history of Korea

Notable for its many successful triumphs over invaders.

Notable for its many successful triumphs over invaders.

Satellite image of Korea

Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War

Political boundaries in Eastern Hemisphere in early half of 11th century

11th century

Period from 1001 through 1100 (MC) in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the 1st century of the 2nd millennium.

Period from 1001 through 1100 (MC) in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the 1st century of the 2nd millennium.

Political boundaries in Eastern Hemisphere in early half of 11th century
Political boundaries in Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 11th century
The Brihadeeswarar Temple of Chola era southern India, completed in 1010, during the reign of Rajaraja I
A Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese Song dynasty, 11th century
An 11th-century rock crystal ewer of Fatimid Egypt
Defeat of the Bulgarians by the Byzantines depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes
Celadon statue of an imperial guardian lion of the Chinese Song dynasty, 11th or 12th century
Territories of Zirids and Hammadids after the invasions of Banu Hilal, of Norman incursions and the weakening of the Almoravids
A flat casket carved out of ivory from Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), c. 1050
The Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066
An 11th-century Chola Dynasty bronze figurine of Arthanariswara
A page of the Domesday Book of England
Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
St Albans Cathedral of England, completed in 1089
The Gonbad-e Qabus Tower, built in 1006 during the Ziyarid Dynasty of Iran
Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056 in Shanxi, China by the Khitan Liao dynasty in 1056
Latin translation of the Book of Optics (1021), written by the Iraqi physicist, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)
Constantine the African examines patients' urine; he taught ancient Greek medicine and Islamic medicine at the Schola Medica Salernitana.
The original diagram of Su Song's book Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao (published 1092) showing the clepsydra tank, waterwheel, escapement mechanism, chain drive, striking clock jacks, and armillary sphere of his clock tower
Diagram from al-Bīrūnī's book Kitab al-tafhim showing lunar phases and lunar eclipse
The spherical astrolabe, long employed in medieval Islamic astronomy, was introduced to Europe by Gerbert d'Aurillac, later Pope Sylvester II.
The Ostromir Gospels of Novgorod, 1057
Alfonso VI of Castile
Empress Agnes, German Queen who became regent of the Holy Roman Empire
Basil II of the Byzantine Empire.
Angels crowning Canute the Great as he and his wife Ælfgifu of Northampton present the Winchester Cross to the church, dated 1031
The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula.
Statue of Lady Li Qingzhao in the Grand Hall of Poets in Du Fu Cao Tang, China
Matilda of Tuscany military leader from Italy
Emperor Shenzong of Song China
Chinese Empress Cao, wife of Emperor Renzong of Song.
Lady Sei Shōnagon, wrote her Pillow Book about life in the Japanese court
Pope Urban II of Rome
Statue of William the Conqueror, holding Domesday Book on the West Front of Lichfield Cathedral.
11th century mosaic of Constantine IX Monomachos, Empress Zoe, and Jesus Christ in the Hagia Sophia.
An 11th-century reliquary of gold and cloisonné over wood, from the Duchy of Brabant, Maastricht Cathedral, now housed in the Louvre.

1010–1011: The Second Goryeo-Khitan War; the Korean king is forced to flee the capital temporarily, but is unable to establish a foothold and fearing a counterattack, the Khitan forces withdrew.

Korea 108 BC

Timeline of Korean history

Timeline of the history of Korea.

Timeline of the history of Korea.

Korea 108 BC
The Four Commanderies of Han, 107 BC
Korea in 1 AD
Korea 204 AD
Korea in 300 AD
Korea in 315 AD
Korea in 375 AD
Korea in 410 AD
Korea in 476 AD
Korea in 576 AD
Goguryeo–Sui War in 598 AD
Goguryeo–Sui War in 612 AD
Goguryeo–Tang War (645–668)
Silla–Tang War (672–676)
Little Goguryeo (699–820)
Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century AD
Balhae in 800 AD
Balhae in 830 AD
Fall of Silla and Baekje, 901-936 AD
Korea in 915 AD
Liao dynasty (907–1125)
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War (993 AD)
Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War (1010 AD)
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War (1018 AD)
1231 Mongol invasion of Goryeo
1232 Mongol invasion of Goryeo
1235 Mongol invasion of Goryeo
1253 Mongol invasion of Goryeo
Goryeo in 1374
Joseon (15th century)
The Eight Provinces of Korea
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
Later Jin invasion of Joseon in 1627
Qing invasion of Joseon (1636–1637)
First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895)
Empire of Japan (1868–1947)
Korean War May 1950
Korean War September 1950
Korean War November 1950
Korean War January 1951
Korean War July 1953

1010: The Second Goryeo–Khitan War ravages the northern border.

Roman numerals on stern of the ship showing draught in feet. The numbers range from 13 to 22, from bottom to top.

1010

Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals on stern of the ship showing draught in feet. The numbers range from 13 to 22, from bottom to top.

Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War: The Goryeo king is unseated in a revolt, resulting in an invasion by the Liao dynasty, and the burning of the Korean capital Gaegyeong.

Satellite image of Korea

Korea

Peninsular region in East Asia.

Peninsular region in East Asia.

Satellite image of Korea
A neighbourhood in North Gyeongsang Province
A view of Mount Seorak
Daedongyeojido – this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region.
Jeju Island seashore
7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla
Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century
Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE
Goryeo in 1374
Gyeongbokgung Palace
Donggwoldo
The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889.
The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul
Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas today; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries
Moon and Kim shaking hands over the demarcation line on 27 April 2018
Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul.
Korean Buddhist architecture
Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu)
Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s
Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce.
Bulgogi and side dishes
Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

During the Goryeo–Khitan War, the Khitan Empire invaded Korea twice more in 1009 and 1018, but was defeated.

Portrait of General Gang Gam-chan

Gang Gam-chan

Medieval Korean government official and military commander during the early days of Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392).

Medieval Korean government official and military commander during the early days of Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392).

Portrait of General Gang Gam-chan
Statue of Gang Gam-chan in Nakseongdae Park, Seoul, South Korea

This time, many officials urged the king to commence peace negotiations, since the damage from the Second Goryeo-Khitan War had been so great, leaving Goryeo difficult to recover.