Secular religion

political religionquasi-religionquasi-religioussecular cult
A secular religion is a communal belief system that often rejects or neglects the metaphysical aspects of the supernatural, commonly associated with traditional religion, instead placing typical religious qualities in earthly entities.wikipedia
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Religion of Humanity

ComteComtisthumanity and its religion
Among systems that have been characterized as secular religions are capitalism, communism, anarchism, fascism, nationalism, Auguste Comte's Religion of Humanity and the Cult of Reason and Cult of the Supreme Being that developed after the French Revolution.
Religion of Humanity (from French Religion de l'Humanité or église positiviste) is a secular religion created by Auguste Comte, the founder of positivist philosophy.

American civil religion

civil religion
Totalitarian societies are perhaps more prone to political religion, but various scholars have described features of political religion even in democracies, for instance American civil religion as described by Robert Bellah in 1967.
There is a viewpoint that some Americans have come to see the document of the United States Constitution, along with the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights as cornerstones of a type of civic or civil religion or political religion.

Civil religion

civic religioncivil ceremony
The term is sometimes treated as synonymous with civil religion, but although some scholars use the terms equivalently, others see a useful distinction, using "civil religion" as something weaker, which functions more as a socially unifying and essentially conservative force, whereas a political religion is radically transformational, even apocalyptic.
The Italian historian Emilio Gentile has studied the roots and development of the concept and proposed a division of two types of religions of politics: a civil religion and a political religion.

Fascism

fascistfascistsfascistic
Among systems that have been characterized as secular religions are capitalism, communism, anarchism, fascism, nationalism, Auguste Comte's Religion of Humanity and the Cult of Reason and Cult of the Supreme Being that developed after the French Revolution.
In Reflections on Violence, Sorel emphasized need for a revolutionary political religion.

Ideology

ideologicalideologiespolitical ideology
The theory of political religion concerns governmental ideologies whose cultural and political backing is so strong that they are said to attain power equivalent to those of a state religion, with which they often exhibit significant similarities in both theory and practice.
He said that ideas like these became ideologies by giving hegemonic political actions an idealistic veneer and equipping their leaders with a higher and, in the "political religions" (Eric Voegelin), nearly God-like power, so that they became masters over the lives (and the deaths) of millions of people.

Eric Voegelin

VoegelinVoegelin, Eric
Before emigrating to the United States, the German-born political philosopher Eric Voegelin wrote a book entitled The political religions.
An early work was Die politischen Religionen (1938; The Political Religions), on totalitarian ideologies as political religions due to their structural similarities to religion.

State religion

state churchestablished churchofficial religion
The theory of political religion concerns governmental ideologies whose cultural and political backing is so strong that they are said to attain power equivalent to those of a state religion, with which they often exhibit significant similarities in both theory and practice.
In some countries, there is a political ideology sponsored by the government that may be called political religion.

Emilio Gentile

Gentile, Emilio
Scholars who have studied these phenomena include William Connolly in political science, Christoph Deutschmann in sociology, Emilio Gentile in history, Oliver O'Donovan in theology and others in psychology.
He considers fascism a form of political religion.

Robert N. Bellah

Robert Bellah,
Totalitarian societies are perhaps more prone to political religion, but various scholars have described features of political religion even in democracies, for instance American civil religion as described by Robert Bellah in 1967.
Political religion

Cult of personality

personality cultpersonality cultscults of personality
The nominally terrorist organisation that now has Members in the Parliament and the government uses European-inspired techniques such as the cult of personality, cult of martyrdom, antisemitism and conspirationnism.
Often these cults are a form of political religion.

State atheism

atheist stateatheistatheistic
Where there is suppression of religious institutions and beliefs, this might be explicitly accompanied by atheistic doctrine as in state atheism.
The North Korean government promotes the cult of personality of Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung, described as a political religion, as well as the Juche ideology, based on Korean ultranationalism, which calls on people to "avoid spiritual deference to outside influences", which was interpreted as including religion originating outside of Korea.

Politics, Religion & Ideology

It was renamed Politics, Religion & Ideology in 2011.
* Political religion

Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and state
Juan Linz has posited the friendly form of separation of church and state as the counterpole of political religion but describes the hostile form of separation of church and state as moving toward political religion as found in totalitarianism.
The hostile model exhibited during these events can be seen as approaching the type of political religion seen in totalitarian states.

Juche

Juche'' ideaGreat LeaderGreat Leader theory
The North Korean government has promulgated Juche as a political alternative to traditional religion.
Political religion

Religious aspects of Nazism

neopaganistfaith of Nazi GermanyGermanic religion
It has been debated whether Nazism would constitute a political religion, and there has also been research on the millenarian, messianic, and occult or esoteric aspects of Nazism.

Fascism and ideology

fascist ideologyFascists accuse liberalismideology of fascism
Common themes among fascist movements include; nationalism (including racial nationalism), hierarchy and elitism, militarism, quasi-religion, masculinity and voluntarism.

Polis

poleiscity-statecity-states
Temples, altars, and sacred precincts: one or more are dedicated to the poliouchos, the patron deity of the city; each polis kept its own particular festivals and customs (Political religion, as opposed to the individualized religion of later antiquity). Priests and priestesses, although often drawn from certain families by tradition, did not form a separate collegiality or class; they were ordinary citizens who on certain occasions were called to perform certain functions.

Evolutionism

evolutionistevolutionistsevolution
The term is also sometimes used by the creationist movement to describe adherence to the scientific consensus on evolution as equivalent to a secular religion.

History of Italian citizenship

In contrast, the Vociani wanted national regeneration through civic humanism and the faith of a secular religion that could “educate the moral conscience for the modern ‘New Italian’ harmonizing the need for a strong sense of national identity with the aspiration of attaining a higher universal conscience, above and beyond that of nationalism.”

Triumph of the Will

Triumph des WillensNazi propaganda filmLe Triomphe de la volonté
Triumph of the Will is sometimes seen as an example of Nazi political religion.

Pseudoreligion

false religionquasi-religiousfringe religions
Within the academic debate, political ideologies that resemble religion are sometimes referred to as political religions.

Joie de vivre

joy of livingJoi De Vivrejoy of life
Thereafter, it took on increasing weight as a mode of life, evolving at times almost into a secular religion in the early 20th century; and subsequently fed into Lacanian emphasis on "a jouissance beyond the pleasure principle" in the latter half of the century – a time when its emphasis on enthusiasm, energy and spontaneity gave it a global prominence with the rise of hippie culture.

Daniel Clasen

Clasen was one of the earliest theorists of political religion, though preceded by Tommaso Campanella (1568–1639), and argued against accommodation theory.

Italian Fascism

FascistFascismItalian Fascist
Fascist art, architecture and symbols constituted a process which converted Fascism into a sort of a civil religion or political religion.

Winifred Wagner

WinifredWinifred Williams Winifred Williams
Like Hitler, Winifred Wagner believed profoundly in the rite of a secular cult of German nationalism, of Nordic self-realization, and völkisch aspiration.