Secular state

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Idea pertaining to secularity, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.

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Confessional states.

State religion

Religion or creed officially endorsed by a sovereign state.

Religion or creed officially endorsed by a sovereign state.

Confessional states.

A state with an official religion (also known as confessional state), while not secular, is not necessarily a theocracy.

Printed copies of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada, forming the first part of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada, forming the first part of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Printed copies of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau was a major advocate of the Charter.
The building of the Supreme Court of Canada, the chief authority on the interpretation of the Charter
The United States Bill of Rights influenced the text of the Charter, but its rights provisions are interpreted more conservatively. Canadian civil-rights and constitutional cases as compared to American cases occasionally have dissimilar outcomes because the broader Charter rights are limited by the "savings clause" of section 1 of the Charter as interpreted in R v Oakes
The "March of Hearts" rally for same-sex marriage equality under the Charter in 2004.

Section 2: lists what the Charter calls "fundamental freedoms" namely freedom of conscience, freedom of religion, freedom of thought, freedom of belief, freedom of expression, freedom of the press and of other media of communication, freedom of peaceful assembly, and freedom of association. In case law, this clause is cited as the reason for the religious neutrality of the state.

Sierra Leone

Country on the southwest coast of West Africa.

Country on the southwest coast of West Africa.

Fragments of prehistoric pottery from Kamabai Rock Shelter
Bunce Island, 1805, during the period the slave factory was run by John and Alexander Anderson
An 1835 illustration of liberated Africans arriving in Sierra Leone
The colony of Freetown in 1856
Houses at Sierra-Leone (May 1853, X, p.55)
Bai Bureh, Temne leader of the Hut Tax War of 1898 against British rule
Temne leader Bai Bureh seen here in 1898 after his surrender, sitting relaxed in his traditional dress with a handkerchief in his hands, while a Sierra Leonean Royal West African Frontier soldier stands guard next to him
Moa River Bridge, Sierra Leone. Lisk-Carew Brothers, Freetown, Sierra Leone
British West African Campaign troops in Freetown, 1914–1916. Published caption: "British expeditionary force preparing to embark at Freetown to attack the German Cameroons, the main object of the attack being the port of Duala. Auxiliary native troops were freely used in African warfare."
African Naval ratings march past the Governor of Sierra Leone, Sir Hubert Stevenson.
An APC political rally in the northern town of Kabala outside the home of supporters of the rival SLPP in 1968
A school in Koindu destroyed during the Civil War; in total 1,270 primary schools were destroyed in the War.
A map of Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone map of Köppen climate classification
The Sierra Leone Supreme Court in the capital Freetown, the highest and most powerful court in the country
The 14 districts and 2 areas of Sierra Leone
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Sierra Leone exports, 2019
A farmer with his rice harvest in Sierra Leone. Two-thirds of Sierra Leone's population are directly involved in subsistence agriculture.
The road from Kenema to Kailahun District
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Sierra Leone's total population, from 1961 to 2013
A mosque in Sierra Leone
The distribution of major ethnic groups within Sierra Leone
A secondary school class in Pendembu, Kailahun District
A situation map of the Ebola outbreak as of 8 August 2014
Rice farming in Rolako
A radio listener in Kailahun
Isata Mahoi shown editing radio programmes in Talking Drum studio Freetown; she is also an actress in the Sierra Leone radio soap opera Atunda Ayenda
National Stadium in Freetown.
Odelay mask by Temne people. Brooklyn Museum.
The Koindu dance

Sierra Leone is a secular nation with the constitution providing for the separation of state and religion and freedom of conscience (which includes freedom of thoughts and religion).

St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli

Separation of church and state

Philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the state.

Philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the state.

St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli
Antichristus, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a generously contributing ruler
John Locke, English political philosopher argued for individual conscience, free from state control.
Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, whose letter to the Danbury Baptists Association is often quoted in debates regarding the separation of church and state
Countries with a state religion
H. B. Higgins, proponent of Section 116 in the Australian pre-Federation constitutional conventions
Azerbaijan and its main cities
Rui Barbosa had a large influence upon the text adopted as the 1891 Constitution of Brazil.
"Constitution no. 1", which is kept in the great hall of the Palace of the Constitutional Court and is used on the occasion of the presidential inauguration
Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church in Aups, Var département, which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. Such inscriptions on a church are very rare; this one was restored during the 1989 bicentennial of the French Revolution.
Courtroom with Crucifix in Nuremberg, Germany, June 2016
James Madison, drafter of the Bill of Rights
Thomas Jefferson's tombstone. The inscription, as he stipulated, reads, "Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author of ... the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom ...."

Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church-state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state.

Sudan

Country in Northeast Africa.

Country in Northeast Africa.

The large mud brick temple, known as the Western Deffufa, in the ancient city of Kerma
Fortress of Buhen, of the Middle Kingdom, reconstructed under the New Kingdom (about 1200 B.C.)
Nubian pyramids in Meroë
Kušiya soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The three Christian Nubian kingdoms. The northern border of Alodia is unclear, but it also might have been located further north, between the fourth and fifth Nile cataract.
Moses George, king of Makuria and Alodia
The great mosque of Sennar, built in the 17th century.
Southern Sudan in c. undefined 1800. Modern boundaries are shown.
Ismail Pasha, the Ottoman Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879.
Muhammad Ahmad, ruler of Sudan (1881–1885).
The flight of the Khalifa after his defeat at the Battle of Omdurman.
The Mahdist War was fought between a group of Muslim dervishes, called Mahdists, who had over-run much of Sudan, and the British forces.
A camel soldier of the native forces of the British army, early 20th century.
Sudan's flag raised at independence ceremony on 1 January 1956 by the Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari and in presence of opposition leader Mohamed Ahmed Almahjoub
1971 Sudanese coup d'état
Omar al-Bashir in 2017
Government militia in Darfur
Southern Sudanese wait to vote during the 2011 South Sudanese independence referendum
Sudanese protestors celebrate the 17 August 2019 signing of the Draft Constitutional Declaration between military and civilian representatives.
Sudanese leader Abdel Fattah al-Burhan with Israel's Minister of Intelligence, Eli Cohen, in January 2021
A map of Sudan. The Hala'ib Triangle has been under contested Egyptian administration since 2000.
A Köppen climate classification map of Sudan.
Bashir (right) and U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick, 2005
The chairman of Sudan's sovereign council, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 2020
Darfur refugee camp in Chad, 2005
A proportional representation of Sudan exports, 2019
Oil and gas concessions in Sudan – 2004
GDP per capita development in Sudan
Sudan 2010 estimated population density.
Sudanese Arab of Al-Manasir
Masjid Al-Nilin, mosque in the capital city of Sudan, Khartoum
University of Khartoum, established as Gordon Memorial College in 1902
A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman.
Bejia men wearing galabiyas

Islam was Sudan's state religion and Islamic laws were applied from 1983 until 2020 when the country became a secular state.

Nepal

Landlocked country in South Asia.

Landlocked country in South Asia.

A topographic map of Nepal
Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth, lies on the Nepal–China border.
Köppen climate classification for Nepal
This land cover map of Nepal using Landsat 30 m (2010) data shows forest cover as the dominant type of land cover in Nepal.
The greater one-horned rhinoceros roams the sub-tropical grasslands of the Terai plains.
The Himalayan monal (Danphe), the national bird of Nepal, nests high in the Himalayas.
B.P. Koirala led the 1951 revolution, became the first democratically elected Prime Minister, and after being deposed and imprisoned in 1961, spent the rest of his life fighting for democracy.
Nepal has made progress with regard to minority rights in recent years.
Traffic Police personnel manually direct traffic at the busiest roads and junctions.
Gurkha Memorial, London
Nepal is one of the major contributors to UN peacekeeping missions.
The multipurpose Kukri knife (top) is the signature weapon of the Nepali armed forces, and is used by the Gurkhas, Nepal Army, Police and even security guards.
A proportional representation of Nepal exports, 2019
Real GPD per capita development of Nepal
Tourists view a greater one-horned rhinoceros from an elephant in Chitwan National Park.
While adults are employed in slavery-like conditions abroad, hundreds of thousands of children in the country are employed as child labour (not including the agricultural sector).
Middle Marsyangdi Hydroelectric Dam. Nepal has significant potential to generate hydropower, which it plans to export across South Asia.
Sadhus in Pashupatinath Temple
Historical development of life expectancy in Nepal
A Magar couple in their ethnic dress
Bhanubhakta Acharya, Nepali writer who translated the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana in the Nepali language
A Nepali man in Daura-Suruwal, coat and Dhaka topi, displays the bhoto during the Bhoto Jatra festival.
A dal-bhat thali with boiled rice, lentil soup, fried leafy greens, vegetable curry, yoghurt, papad and vegetable salad
Momo dumplings with chutney
Samayabaji (Newar cuisine)
Nepali children playing a variant of knucklebones, with pebbles
Nepali cricket fans are renowned for an exceptionally enthusiastic support of their national team.
"Nēpāla" in the late Brahmi script, in the Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta (350-375 CE).

The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, affirms the country as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.

Kazakhstan

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Karaganda Region
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Corsac fox
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Downtown Nur-Sultan
GDP per capita development, since 1973
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Officially, it is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.

Uzbekistan

Doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.

Doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.

Female statuette wearing the kaunakes. Chlorite and limestone, Bactria, beginning of the second millennium BC
Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus. Mosaic in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Triumphant crowd at Registan, Sher-Dor Madrasah. The Emir of Bukhara viewing the severed heads of Russian soldiers on poles. Painting by Vasily Vereshchagin (1872).
Russian troops taking Samarkand in 1868, by Nikolay Karazin.
Two Sart men and two Sart boys in Samarkand, c. 1910
Map of Uzbekistan, including the former Aral Sea.
Uzbekistan map of Köppen climate classification
Cotton picking near Kyzyl-Kala, Karakalpakstan.
Map of flooded areas as a result of the collapse of the Sardoba Reservoir
Comparison of the Aral Sea between 1989 and 2014
The Legislative Chamber of Uzbekistan (Lower House).
Islam Karimov, the first President of Uzbekistan, during a visit to the Pentagon in 2002
President Islam Karimov with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Samarkand in November 2015
Leaders present at the SCO summit in Ufa, Russia in 2015
Political Map of Uzbekistan
A proportional representation of Uzbekistan exports, 2019
Yodgorlik silk factory
Bread sellers in Urgut
Population pyramid 2016
Newlywed couples visit Tamerlane's statues to receive wedding blessings.
Uzbek children
Shakh-i Zindeh mosque, Samarkand
Mosque of Bukhara
Bukharan Jews, c. 1899
A page in Uzbek language written in Nastaʿlīq script printed in Tashkent 1911
Central Station of Tashkent
The Afrosiyob high-speed train
Uzbek troops during a cooperative operation exercise
Traditional Uzbek pottery
Navoi Opera Theater in Tashkent
Embroidery from Uzbekistan
Silk and Spice Festival in Bukhara
Palov
Uzbek manti
Milliy Stadium in Tashkent.

Uzbekistan is a secular state, with a presidential constitutional government in place.

Spain

Country in southwestern Europe with parts of territory in the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean Sea.

Country in southwestern Europe with parts of territory in the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean Sea.

The Lady of Elche, possibly depicting Tanit, from Carthaginian Iberia, 4th century BCE
Celtic castro in Galicia
The Roman Theatre in Mérida
Reccared I and bishops during Council III of Toledo, 589. Codex Vigilanus, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial
Votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of Guarrazar
The interior of the Great Mosque of Córdoba
In 1030, the Kingdom of Navarre controlled the Count of Aragon and the Count of Castile, who later became major kingdoms of its time.
Miniature from the 13th-century Libro de los Juegos depicting a Jew (left) and a Moor (right) playing chess.
Late 16th-century Seville, the harbor enjoying the exclusive right to trade with the New World.
Lienzo de Tlaxcala codex showing the 1519 meeting of conquistador Hernán Cortés and his counsellor La Malinche with Aztec emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan.
Main Trade Routes of the Spanish Empire
The family of Philip V. During the Enlightenment in Spain a new royal family reigned, the House of Bourbon.
Ferdinand VII swears on the 1812 Constitution before the Cortes in 1820
Puerta del Sol, Madrid, after the Spanish Revolution of 1868
Demonstration in Barcelona during the Tragic Week events
Republican volunteers at Teruel, 1936
Felipe González signing the treaty of accession to the European Economic Community on 12 June 1985
The 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona
Demonstration against the crisis and high youth unemployment in Madrid, 15 May 2011
Topographic map of Spain
Satellite image of Mallorca island
Teide, still active volcano in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands is the greatest peak in Spain
The coast north of the Cantabrian Mountains features an humid oceanic climate
The southeasternmost end of the Iberian peninsula features an arid climate.
The Iberian wolf in Castile and Leon. The region has 25% of the land covered by Natura 2000 protected natural spaces.
The Congress of Deputies
Palau Reial de Pedralbes in Barcelona, headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean.
Aerial view showing the Rock of Gibraltar, the isthmus of Gibraltar and the Bay of Gibraltar.
Almirante Juan de Borbón (F-102), a Spanish navy's F100 class frigate incorporating the Aegis Combat System.
WorldPride Madrid 2017. A summit on LGBTI human rights took place at the same time as World Pride celebrations.
Spain is a member of the Schengen Area, the Eurozone and the European Single Market.
A proportional representation of Spain exports, 2019
Renault factory in Valladolid
Olive orchards in Andalusia.
Benidorm, one of Europe's largest coastal tourist destinations
Solar power plant Andasol was the first parabolic trough power plant in Europe. Because of the high altitude (1,100 m) and the semi-arid climate, the site has exceptionally high annual direct insolation of 2,200 kWh/m2 per year.
The Port of Valencia, one of the busiest in the Golden Banana
GranTeCan reflecting telescope located at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Population pyramid of Spain from 1950 to 2014
Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008
Celebration of the Romani Day on 24 May 2018 in Madrid
Distribution of the foreign population in Spain in 2005 by percentage
Languages of Spain
University of Seville rectorate building
The interior of the Hermitage of El Rocío during a Catholic ceremony.
Manuscript of the 13th-century Grande e general estoria.
Las Meninas by Diego Velázquez
The Comb of the Wind of Eduardo Chillida in San Sebastián
Pedro Almodóvar and Penélope Cruz in Oviedo
Hanging Houses of Cuenca
Flamenco is an Andalusian artistic form that evolved from Seguidilla.
Spain or La Roja lineup in 2015. Football is the most popular and profitable sport in the country.
Encierro, San Fermín, in Pamplona

Spain is a developed country, a secular parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.

Turkey

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

With the reforms initiated by the country's first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey became a secular, unitary and parliamentary republic.