Secular state

secularstate secularismsecular countryDisestablishmentsecular nationsecularismChurch Disestablishmentgovernment should be neutral on matters of religionlay Stateno official religion
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularity, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.wikipedia
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Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and state
Movements for laïcité in France and separation of church and state in the United States have defined modern concepts of secularism.
Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state.

Nepal

Federal Democratic Republic of NepalNepaleseNepali
Secularity can be established at a state's creation (e.g. the United States of America) or by it later secularizing (e.g. France or Nepal).
The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, affirms Nepal as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.

State religion

Established Churchofficial religionestablished
Secular states do not have a state religion (e.g. an established religion) or an equivalent, although the absence of an established state religion does not necessarily imply that a state is fully secular or egalitarian in all respects. The reverse progression can also occur, however; a state can go from being secular to being a religious state, as in the case of Iran where the secularized state of the Pahlavi dynasty was replaced by an Islamic Republic (list below).
A state with an official religion, while not secular, is not necessarily a theocracy, a country whose rulers have both secular and spiritual authority.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
Secularity can be established at a state's creation (e.g. the United States of America) or by it later secularizing (e.g. France or Nepal).
In 1905, state secularism was officially established.

Nigeria

Federal Republic of NigeriaNigerianNGA
The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state.

Secularity

secularnon-religioussecularized
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularity, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
The reverse progression can also occur, however; a state can go from being secular to being a religious state, as in the case of Iran where the secularized state of the Pahlavi dynasty was replaced by an Islamic Republic (list below).
While the Shah increasingly modernized Iran and claimed to retain it as a fully secular state, arbitrary arrests and torture by his secret police, the SAVAK, were used to crush all forms of political opposition.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
Turkey is a secular, unitary, formerly parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018.

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.

Albania

Republic of AlbaniaAlbanianALB
Today a secular state without any official religion, religious freedoms and practices were severely curtailed during the communist era with all forms of worship being outlawed.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
The new Constitution drafted in 1857 established a secular state, federalism as the form of government, civil marriage, freedom of the press, and educational freedom (lay education).

Secularization

secularisationsecularizedsecularised
Secularity can be established at a state's creation (e.g. the United States of America) or by it later secularizing (e.g. France or Nepal).

Serbia

SRBRepublic of SerbiaSerbian
The Constitution of Serbia defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom.

Azerbaijan

Republic of AzerbaijanAzerbaijan RepublicAZE
Under article 48 of its Constitution, Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom.

Mali

Republic of MaliMalianMLI
The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right.

Niger

Republic of NigerNiger RepublicThe Republic of Niger
Niger is a secular country and separation of state and religion is guaranteed by Articles 3 and 175 of the 2010 Constitution, which dictate that future amendments or revisions may not modify the secular nature of the republic of Niger.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
The Philippines is an officially secular state, although Christianity is the dominant faith.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyz RepublicKyrgyzKyrghyzstan
Today, however, Kyrgyzstan is a secular state, although Islam has exerted a growing influence in politics.

Tajikistan

TadjikistanTajikRepublic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan considers itself a secular state with a Constitution providing for freedom of religion.

Bulgaria

BULBulgarianRepublic of Bulgaria
Bulgaria is a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom by constitution, but Orthodoxy is designated as a "traditional" religion.

Portugal

PortuguesePortuguese RepublicPOR
Portugal is a secular state: church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the 1976 Portuguese Constitution.

State atheism

atheist stateatheistatheistic
In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.

Discrimination against atheists

Persecution of atheists in Islamic countriesPersecution of atheistsAnti-atheism
Although officially a secular state, the vast majority of Turks are Muslim, and the state grants some special privileges to Muslims and to Islam in the media and private religious institutions.

Romania

ROURomanianRomânia
Romania is a secular state and has no state religion.

Freedom of religion

religious freedomreligious libertyfreedom of worship
Freedom of religion as a legal concept is related to, but not identical with, religious toleration, separation of church and state, or secular state (laïcité).