A report on Secularism

The British writer George Holyoake (1817–1906) employed the term "secularism" in 1851
Countries with a state religion.

Principle of seeking to conduct human affairs based on secular, naturalistic considerations.

- Secularism
The British writer George Holyoake (1817–1906) employed the term "secularism" in 1851

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The Greek word αθεοι (atheoi), as it appears in the Epistle to the Ephesians 2:12 on the early 3rd-century Papyrus 46. It is usually translated into English as "[those who are] without God".

Atheism

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Absence of belief in the existence of deities.

Absence of belief in the existence of deities.

The Greek word αθεοι (atheoi), as it appears in the Epistle to the Ephesians 2:12 on the early 3rd-century Papyrus 46. It is usually translated into English as "[those who are] without God".
Paul Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, an 18th-century advocate of atheism."The source of man's unhappiness is his ignorance of Nature. The pertinacity with which he clings to blind opinions imbibed in his infancy, which interweave themselves with his existence, the consequent prejudice that warps his mind, that prevents its expansion, that renders him the slave of fiction, appears to doom him to continual error."
Epicurus is credited with first expounding the problem of evil. David Hume in his Dialogues concerning Natural Religion (1779) cited Epicurus in stating the argument as a series of questions:
"Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is impotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?"
A statue of the Buddhist philosopher Vasubandhu, 1208, Kofukuji Temple, Nara, Japan
Buddhism is sometimes described as nontheistic because of the absence of a creator god, but that can be too simplistic a view.
Karl Marx
Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity (1841) would greatly influence philosophers such as Engels, Marx, David Strauss, Nietzsche, and Max Stirner. He considered God to be a human invention and religious activities to be wish-fulfillment. For this he is considered the founding father of modern anthropology of religion.
1929 cover of the USSR League of Militant Atheists magazine, showing the gods of the Abrahamic religions being crushed by the Communist five-year plan
Nonreligious population by country, 2010.
Percentage of people in various European countries who said: "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force." (2010)
Countries with punishment for blasphemy.
Countries with the death penalty for apostasy

Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies (e.g. secular humanism), there is no ideology or code of conduct to which all atheists adhere.

Atatürk in 1930

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

Atatürk in 1930
The house where Atatürk was born in the Ottoman city of Salonika (Thessaloniki in present-day Greece), now a museum
The reconstructed house of Atatürk's paternal grandparents, in the Ottoman village of Kocacık (Kodžadžik in present-day North Macedonia)
Atatürk on the day of graduation from the War Academy in 1905
Atatürk (front row, second from left) with the Ottoman Turkish observers at the Picardie army manoeuvres in France, 28 September 1910
Atatürk (left) with an Ottoman military officer and Bedouin forces in Derna, Tripolitania Vilayet, 1912
Cevat Pasha and Atatürk on the daily Tasvîr-i Efkâr dated 29 October 1915
Atatürk with Ottoman military officers during the Battle of Gallipoli, Çanakkale, 1915
Atatürk in 1918, the Commander of the Yıldırım Army Group and an Honorary aide-de-camp of the Sultan
Atatürk (right) in Angora (Ankara) with İsmet Pasha (left)
Prominent nationalists at the Sivas Congress, left to right: Muzaffer (Kılıç), Rauf (Orbay), Bekir Sami (Kunduh), Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), Ruşen Eşref (Ünaydın), Cemil Cahit (Toydemir), Cevat Abbas (Gürer)
Atatürk inspects the Turkish troops on 18 June 1922
A British cartoon of 1923 satirising Atatürk's rule in Turkey
Atatürk at the opening ceremony of the Samsun-Çarşamba railroad (1928)
Atatürk in 1923, with members of the Mevlevi Order, before its institutional expression became illegal and their dervish lodge was changed into the Mevlana Museum. The Mevlevi Order managed to transform itself into a non-political organization which still exists.
In 1924, during his speech in Bursa
Atatürk during the Republic Day celebrations on the second anniversary of the Turkish Republic, 29 October 1925.
Atatürk with his Panama hat just after the Kastamonu speech in 1925
Atatürk is greeted by marines in Büyükada (14 July 1927)
Atatürk at the 1927 opening of the State Art and Sculpture Museum
Atatürk at the library of the Çankaya Presidential Residence in Ankara, on 16 July 1929
Atatürk attending a class at the Law School of the Istanbul House of Multiple Sciences in 1930
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri on 20 September 1928
In 1930, leaving the parliament after the 7th-year celebration meeting.
Atatürk with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar and his daughter in Yalova, on 13 August 1930
In 1931, during the establishment ceremony of the Turkish History Institution. Atatürk is standing with Afet İnan (on his left) and Yusuf Akçura (first from the left).
Atatürk at the opening of the Türkkuşu flight school in Etimesgut on 3 May 1935
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Atatürk with King Amānullāh Khān of Afghanistan in Ankara, 1928. King Amānullāh attempted to emulate many of Atatürk's reforms in Afghanistan, but was overthrown.
Atatürk with King Faisal I of Iraq in Ankara, 1931
During a reception at the USSR Embassy in Ankara, on 7 November 1927
Exchanges on the concept of a Balkan Federation during the visit of Voroshilov, a vision of Atatürk's which was never achieved
Atatürk (center) hosting the Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (at the left) in Ankara, October 1930
Atatürk (right) with Reza Shah Pahlavi (left) of Iran, during the Shah's visit to Turkey
Atatürk observes the Turkish troops during the military exercise on 28 May 1936
During the visit of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in 1931
Atatürk with Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas (second from right) at the Balkan Pact summit in Ankara, March 1938
Telegram sent by Atatürk after the local legislative assembly accepted his proposal for the Hatay State's flag
Atatürk and Celâl Bayar visiting the Sümerbank Nazilli Cotton Factory, which was established as a part of the cotton-related industry
Atatürk supported large-scale government subsidized industrial complexes, such as Sümerbank, increasingly after the Great Depression.
Atatürk and İsmet İnönü at Nazilli Cotton Factory (1937)
Kemal Atatürk and his wife Latife Uşakizâde during a trip to Bursa, 1924
A view from the state funeral of Atatürk, November 1938
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays such as Republic Day on October 29.
Associated Press news article about the admiration of women from different parts of the world for Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the handsome leader of the Turkish Republic.
Atatürk memorial on Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City
Statue of Atatürk in Ankara
Atatürk in the days of the Mosul question, 1925

Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and socio-political theories became known as Kemalism.

Turkey

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Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, some Kurdish and Zaza tribes, which were feudal (manorial) communities led by chieftains (agha) during the Ottoman period, became discontent about certain aspects of Atatürk's reforms aiming to modernise the country, such as secularism (the Sheikh Said rebellion, 1925) and land reform (the Dersim rebellion, 1937–1938), and staged armed revolts that were put down with military operations.

St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli

Separation of church and state

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Philosophical and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the state.

Philosophical and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the state.

St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli
Antichristus, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a generously contributing ruler
John Locke, English political philosopher argued for individual conscience, free from state control.
Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, whose letter to the Danbury Baptists Association is often quoted in debates regarding the separation of church and state
Countries with a state religion
H. B. Higgins, proponent of Section 116 in the Australian pre-Federation constitutional conventions
Azerbaijan and its main cities
Rui Barbosa had a large influence upon the text adopted as the 1891 Constitution of Brazil.
"Constitution no. 1", which is kept in the great hall of the Palace of the Constitutional Court and is used on the occasion of the presidential inauguration
Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church in Aups, Var département, which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. Such inscriptions on a church are very rare; this one was restored during the 1989 bicentennial of the French Revolution.
Courtroom with Crucifix in Nuremberg, Germany, June 2016
James Madison, drafter of the Bill of Rights
Thomas Jefferson's tombstone. The inscription, as he stipulated, reads, "Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author of ... the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom ...."

The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism.

George Holyoake

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English secularist, co-operator and newspaper editor.

English secularist, co-operator and newspaper editor.

Holyoake's name on the lower section of the Reformers memorial, Kensal Green Cemetery
Holyoake House in Manchester, home to Co-operatives UK and the Co-operative College.
The grave of George Holyoake, Highgate Cemetery, London

He coined the terms secularism in 1851 and "jingoism" in 1878.

Motto of the French Republic on the tympanum of a church in Aups, Var department, which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. Such inscriptions on a church are very rare; this one was restored during the 1989 bicentennial of the French Revolution.

Secularism in France

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Motto of the French Republic on the tympanum of a church in Aups, Var department, which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. Such inscriptions on a church are very rare; this one was restored during the 1989 bicentennial of the French Revolution.

Laïcité ('secularism') is the constitutional principle of secularism in France.

The Republic Protests took place in 2007 in support of the Kemalist reforms, particularly state secularism and democracy, against the perceived Islamization of Turkey under the ruling Justice and Development Party.

Secularism in Turkey

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Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey.

Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey.

The Republic Protests took place in 2007 in support of the Kemalist reforms, particularly state secularism and democracy, against the perceived Islamization of Turkey under the ruling Justice and Development Party.
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Diyanet's Budget in 2013 – Source : TBMM, Turkish Parliament, 2013.

Secularism or Laicism (or laïcité) was first introduced with the 1928 amendment of the Constitution of 1924, which removed the provision declaring that the "Religion of the State is Islam", and with the later reforms of Turkey's first president Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, which set the administrative and political requirements to create a modern, democratic, secular state, aligned with Kemalism.

"Shall he be allowed to rule America?"

Anti-clericalism

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Opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.

Opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.

"Shall he be allowed to rule America?"
Forcible closure of the Grande Chartreuse monastery in 1903
"Between Berlin and Rome", with Bismarck on the left and the Pope on the right. Kladderadatsch, 1875.
Anti-clerical cover of a magazine published in Valencia in 1933
A famous 1876 editorial cartoon by Thomas Nast which portrays bishops as crocodiles who are attacking public schools, with the connivance of Irish Catholic politicians
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Akhund Khurasani is known to be the greatest theorist of Usuli Shi'ism in modern times.

Anti-clericalism is related to secularism, which seeks to separate the church from public and political life.

Portrait of Petrarch painted by Altichiero in 1376

Humanism

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Philosophical stance that emphasizes the individual and social potential and agency of human beings.

Philosophical stance that emphasizes the individual and social potential and agency of human beings.

Portrait of Petrarch painted by Altichiero in 1376
David by Michelangelo, 1501–1504. Artistic work during the Renaissance illustrates the emphasis given to anatomical details of humans.
Richard Dawkins accepting the Services to Humanism award 2012 at the British Humanist Association Annual Conference

Starting in the 20th century, humanist movements have typically been non-religious and aligned with secularism.

Secularity

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State of being unrelated or neutral in regards to religion.

State of being unrelated or neutral in regards to religion.

Linguistically, a process by which anything becomes secular is named secularization, though the term is mainly reserved for the secularization of society; and any concept or ideology promoting the secular may be termed secularism, a term generally applied to the ideology dictating no religious influence on the public sphere.