Secularization

secularisationsecularizedsecularisedsecularizesecularsecularizingsecularisatedsecularization thesisde-Christianizedeclericalization
In sociology, secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.wikipedia
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Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
In sociology, secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
Social theorists such as Karl Marx (1818-1883), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Max Weber (1864-1920), and Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) postulated that the modernization of society would include a decline in levels of religiosity.
Weber's main intellectual concern was understanding the processes of rationalisation, secularisation, and "disenchantment", which he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity.

Kulturkampf

Germany1876 lawBaden's 'Kulturkampf
The 19th-century Kulturkampf in Germany and Switzerland and similar events in many other countries also were expressions of secularization.
More rarely, the term is used by extension to refer to the power struggles between emerging constitutional democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.

Secularity

secularnon-religioussecularized
In sociology, secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Social theorists such as Karl Marx (1818-1883), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Max Weber (1864-1920), and Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) postulated that the modernization of society would include a decline in levels of religiosity.
Both Marx and Auguste Comte set out to develop scientifically justified ideologies in the wake of European secularisation and new developments in the philosophies of history and science.

Sociology of religion

sociologist of religionsociologists of religionreligion
At present, secularization as understood in the West is being debated in the sociology of religion.
Contemporary debates have centered on issues such as secularization, civil religion, and the cohesiveness of religion in the context of globalization and multiculturalism.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
Secularization involves the historical process in which religion loses social and cultural significance.
Studies have focused on secularization.

Orthodox Judaism

OrthodoxOrthodox JewishOrthodox Jews
This is especially the case in societies like Israel (with the ultra-Orthodox and religious Zionists) where committed religious groups have several times the birth rate of seculars.
It arose as a result of the breakdown of the autonomous Jewish community since the 18th century, and was much shaped by a conscious struggle against the pressures of secularization and rival alternatives.

Prince-bishop

prince-bishopricPrince BishopPrince-Archbishop
Still another form of secularization refers to the act of Prince-Bishops or holders of a position in a Monastic or Military Order - holding a combined religious and secular authority under the Catholic Church - who broke away and made themselves into completely secular (typically, Protestant) hereditary rulers.

Anti-clericalism

anti-clericalanticlericalanticlericalism
Applied to church property, historically it refers to the seizure of church lands and buildings, such as Henry VIII's 16th-century dissolution of the monasteries in England and the later acts during the 18th-century French Revolution, as well as by various anti-clerical enlightened absolutist European governments during the 18th and 19th centuries, which resulted in the expulsion and suppression of the religious communities which occupied them.

David Martin (sociologist)

David Martin
While criticizing certain aspects of the traditional sociological theory of secularization, however, David Martin argues that the concept of social differentiation has been its "most useful element".
Martin devised the first critique of secularisation in an essay, "Towards Eliminating the Concept of Secularisation" (1965), and the first comparative empirical theory of secularisation in "Notes for a General Theory of Secularisation" (1969).

Secular state

secularstate secularismsecular country
Secularity can be established at a state's creation (e.g. the United States of America) or by it later secularizing (e.g. France or Nepal).

Charles Taylor (philosopher)

Charles TaylorTaylor, CharlesCharles Margrave Taylor
Charles Taylor in "A Secular Age" challenges what he calls 'the subtraction thesis' – that science leads to religion being subtracted from more and more areas of life.
Taylor's most significant contribution in this field to date is his book A Secular Age which argues against the secularization thesis of Max Weber, Steve Bruce, and others.

History of the world

modern historymodern erahuman history
In his works Legitimacy of the Modern Age (1966) and The Genesis of the Copernican World (1975), Hans Blumenberg has rejected the idea of a historical continuity – fundamental the so-called 'theorem of secularization'; the Modern age in his view represents an independent epoch opposed to Antiquity and the Middle Ages by a rehabilitation of human curiosity in reaction to theological absolutism.
The Early Modern period was characterized by the rise of science, and by increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics, and the nation state.

Laïcité

Laicismlaicistlaic
The word laïcité has been used, from the end of the 19th century on, to mean the freedom of public institutions, especially primary schools, from the influence of the Catholic Church in countries where it had retained its influence, in the context of a secularization process.

Mexican secularization act of 1833

secularizationsecularizedAn Act for the Secularization of the Missions of California
As the new Mexican republic matured, calls for the secularization ("disestablishment") of the missions increased.

Positivism

positivistpositivisticpositivists
By the turn of the 20th century, however, positivism had displaced the Baconian method (which had hitherto bolstered natural theology) and higher education had been thoroughly secularized.
Comte intended to develop a secular-scientific ideology in the wake of European secularisation.

Desecularization

In sociology, desecularization is the proliferation or growth of religion, usually after a period of prior secularization.

Peter L. Berger

Peter BergerBerger, Peter L.Berger
Some scholars (e.g., Rodney Stark, Peter Berger) have argued that levels of religiosity are not declining, while other scholars (e.g., Mark Chaves, N. J. Demerath) have countered by introducing the idea of neo-secularization, which broadens the definition of secularization to include the decline of religious authority and its ability to influence society.
Like most other sociologists of religion of his day, Berger once predicted the all-encompassing secularization of the world.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
In expressly secular states like India, it has been argued that the need was to legislate for toleration and respect between quite different religions, and that the secularization of the West was a response to drastically violent intra-Christian feuds between Catholicism and Protestantism.
He was known for upholding traditional Christian values against secularisation, and for liberalising use of the Tridentine Mass as found in the Roman Missal of 1962.

Secularism

secularsecularistsecularists
In European laicism, it has been argued that secularism is a movement toward modernization, and away from traditional religious values (also known as secularization).

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
Still another form of secularization refers to the act of Prince-Bishops or holders of a position in a Monastic or Military Order - holding a combined religious and secular authority under the Catholic Church - who broke away and made themselves into completely secular (typically, Protestant) hereditary rulers. In expressly secular states like India, it has been argued that the need was to legislate for toleration and respect between quite different religions, and that the secularization of the West was a response to drastically violent intra-Christian feuds between Catholicism and Protestantism.
Although Czech Republic was the site of one of the most significant pre-reformation movements, there are only few Protestant adherents; mainly due to historical reasons like persecution of Protestants by the Catholic Habsburgs, restrictions during the Communist rule, and also the ongoing secularization.

Theory of religious economy

economics of religion
According to Rodney Stark, revival is another aspect of religious change which coincides with secularization.

Theories about religions

theory of religionTheories of religionClifford Geertz's theory of religion
According to the theory, the more religions there are, the more likely the population is to be religious and hereby contradicting the secularization thesis.

Society

societiessocialsocietal
In sociology, secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.