Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedatingsedatedsleeping pillssedative drugssedationsedative hypnoticsleep aidtranquilizer
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.wikipedia
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Sedation

sedatedsedatingsedate
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect. In the event of an overdose or if combined with another sedative, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness (see hypnotic) and even death.
This group is related to sedatives. Whereas the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic generally describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep.

Anxiolytic

anti-anxietyanxiolysisanxiolytics
Anxiolytic refers specifically to the effect upon anxiety. (However, some benzodiazepines can be all three: sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics).
Like other benzodiazepines, it possesses anxiolytic properties, but, unlike other benzodiazepines, it does not have anticonvulsant, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, motor skill-impairing, or amnestic properties.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
These include suicides and accidental drug poisonings.
Most people are under the influence of sedative-hypnotic drugs (such as alcohol or benzodiazepines) when they die by suicide with alcoholism present in between 15% and 61% of cases.

Tranquilizer

tranquilizerstranquillisertranquilizing
Tranquilizer can refer to anxiolytics or antipsychotics.
The term is generally used as a synonym for sedative.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapines1,4-benzodiazepine
Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect. Like alcohol, benzodiazepines are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
Anxiolytic refers specifically to the effect upon anxiety. (However, some benzodiazepines can be all three: sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics). The long-term use of benzodiazepines may have a similar effect on the brain as alcohol, and are also implicated in depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, psychosis, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunction, delirium, and neurocognitive disorders (including benzodiazepine-induced persisting dementia which persists even after the medications are stopped).
These include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, sedatives (including prescription benzodiazepines), opioids (including prescription pain killers and illicit drugs like heroin), stimulants (such as caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines), hallucinogens, and inhalants.

Colonoscopy

colonoscopiescolonoscopecolonoscopic
Although sedatives do not relieve pain in themselves, they can be a useful adjunct to analgesics in preparing patients for surgery, and are commonly given to patients before they are anaesthetized, or before other highly uncomfortable and invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization, colonoscopy or MRI.
Minor colonoscopy risks may include nausea, vomiting or allergies to the sedatives that are used.

Amnesia

memory lossamnesicamnesiac
Sedatives can sometimes leave the patient with long-term or short-term amnesia.
Amnesia can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

Alcohol (drug)

alcoholdrinkingdrink
Sedatives can be misused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug).

Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
Although sedatives do not relieve pain in themselves, they can be a useful adjunct to analgesics in preparing patients for surgery, and are commonly given to patients before they are anaesthetized, or before other highly uncomfortable and invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization, colonoscopy or MRI.
Alcohol is one of the oldest known sedatives and it was used in ancient Mesopotamia thousands of years ago.

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
The paradoxical reactions may consist of depression, with or without suicidal tendencies, phobias, aggressiveness, violent behavior and symptoms sometimes misdiagnosed as psychosis.
These include alcohol, sedatives (including prescription benzodiazepines), opioids (including prescription pain killers and illicit drugs such as heroin), stimulants (such as cocaine and amphetamines), hallucinogens, and inhalants.

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
The long-term use of benzodiazepines may have a similar effect on the brain as alcohol, and are also implicated in depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mania, psychosis, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunction, delirium, and neurocognitive disorders (including benzodiazepine-induced persisting dementia which persists even after the medications are stopped).
Abuse of over-the counter or prescription sleep aids (sedative or depressant drugs) can produce rebound insomnia.

Tranquillizer gun

tranquilizer darttranquilizer gundart gun
Tranquilizer gun
These guns shoot darts with a hypodermic needle tip, filled with a dose of tranquilizer solution that is either sedative, comatosing or paralytic, which once injected will temporarily impair the target's physical function to a level that allows it to be approached and handled in an unresisting and thus safe manner.

Diphenhydramine

diphenhydramine hydrochlorideNytolAllergan
Diphenhydramine citrate
Because of its sedative properties, diphenhydramine is widely used in nonprescription sleep aids for insomnia.

Sleep induction

sleep-inducingwarm milkinduce sleep
Like alcohol, benzodiazepines are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.
An alcoholic drink or nightcap is a long-standing folk method which will induce sleep, as alcohol is a sedative.

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
Lorazepam is one such pharmacological agent that can cause anterograde amnesia.
Lorazepam has anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, amnesic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.

Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Antidepressants
Although in 1955 reserpine was shown to be more effective than placebo in alleviating anxious depression, neuroleptics were being developed as sedatives and antipsychotics.

Irritability

agitationirritationhyperirritable
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

Psychomotor agitation

agitationrestlessnessexcitement
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

GABAγ-aminobutyric acidGABAergic
Various kinds of sedatives can be distinguished, but the majority of them affect the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are brain chemicals performing communication between brain cells.

Gait (human)

gaithuman gaitheel strike
At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes.

Reflex

reflexesreflex actioninvoluntary action
At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes.

Unconsciousness

unconsciousloss of consciousnessnarcosis
In the event of an overdose or if combined with another sedative, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness (see hypnotic) and even death.

Death

mortalitydeaddeceased
In the event of an overdose or if combined with another sedative, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness (see hypnotic) and even death.