A report on Seed

Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.
Plant ovules: Gymnosperm ovule on left, angiosperm ovule (inside ovary) on right
The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing a well-developed embryo, nutritive tissue (megagametophyte), and a bit of the surrounding seed coat
The parts of an avocado seed (a dicot), showing the seed coat and embryo
Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo: (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl
Diagram of a generalized dicot seed (1) versus a generalized monocot seed (2). A. Scutellum B. Cotyledon C. Hilum D. Plumule E. Radicle F. Endosperm
Comparison of monocotyledons and dicotyledons
Seed coat of pomegranate
A collection of various vegetable and herb seeds
Dandelion seeds are contained within achenes, which can be carried long distances by the wind.
The seed pod of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
Germinating sunflower seedlings
Microbial transmission from seed to seedling
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean or green bean) seeds are diverse in size, shape, and color.
The massive fruit of the coco de mer

Embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve.

- Seed
Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.

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Culinary fruits

Fruit

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Culinary fruits
Caraway fruits. A common mistake is to call these and similar ones "seeds".
Pomegranate display of the exocarp (right) and seeds and edible sarcotesta (left)
An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as culinary vegetables, including corn (maize), tomatoes, and various squash
The development sequence of a typical drupe, the nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7.5 month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer (see [[:File:Nectarine Fruit Development.jpg|image page]] for further information)
The parts of a flower, showing the stigma-style-ovary system.
An apple is a simple fleshy fruit. Key parts are the epicarp, or exocarp, or outer skin, (not labelled); and the mezocarp and endocarp (labelled).
Insertion point: There are 3 positions of insertion of the ovary at the base of a flower: I superior; II half-inferior; III inferior. The 'insertion point' is where the androecium parts (a), the petals (p), and the sepals (s) all converge and attach to the receptacle (r). (Ovary= gynoecium (g).)
In the noni, flowers are produced in time-sequence along the stem. It is possible to see a progression of flowering, fruit development, and fruit ripening.
Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit.
Dewberry fruit
A dry simple fruit: milkweed (Asclepias syriaca); dehiscence of the follicular fruit reveals seeds within.
Fruits of four different banana cultivars (Bananas are berries.)
Strawberry, showing achenes attached to surface. Botanically, strawberries are not berries; they are classified as an aggregate accessory fruit.
Flower of Magnolia × wieseneri showing the many pistils making up the gynoecium in the middle of the flower. The fruit of this flower is an aggregation of follicles.
Detail of the raspberry flower: there is a clustering of pistils at the center of the flower. (A pistil consists of stigma, style, and ovary.) The stigma is the apical (at the apex) nodule that receives pollen; the style is the stem-like column that extends down to the ovary, which is the basal part that contains the seed-forming ovule.
Lilium unripe capsule fruit; an aggregate fruit.
The fruit of a pineapple includes tissue from the sepals as well as the pistils of many flowers. It is a multiple-accessory fruit.
Picking blackberries in Oklahoma
Comparing fresh fruits for fiber, potassium (K), and vitamin C. Each disk-point refers to a 100 g serving of the fresh fruit named. The size of the disk represents the amount of fiber (as percentage of the recommended daily allowance, RDA) in a serving of fruit (see key at upper right). The amount of vitamin C (as percent RDA) is plotted on the x–axis and the amount of potassium (K), in mg on the y–axis. + Bananas are high in value for fiber and potassium, and oranges for fiber and vitamin C. (Apricots are highest in potassium; strawberries are rich in vitamin C.) Watermelon, providing low levels of both K and vitamin C and almost no fiber, is of least value for the three nutrients together.
Porcelain vine is usually planted for its showy, colourful berries.

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from the ovary after flowering.

Flowering plant

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Flowering plants are plants that bear flowers and fruits, and form the clade Angiospermae, commonly called angiosperms.

Flowering plants are plants that bear flowers and fruits, and form the clade Angiospermae, commonly called angiosperms.

Chamaenerion angustifolium, also known as fireweed or rosebay willowherb, is a flowering plant in the willowherb family Onagraceae.
Cross-section of a stem of the angiosperm flax:
1. pith, 2. protoxylem, 3. xylem, 4. phloem, 5. sclerenchyma (bast fibre), 6. cortex, 7. epidermis
A collection of flowers forming an inflorescence.
From 1736, an illustration of Linnaean classification
An auxanometer, a device for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants
Monocot (left) and dicot seedlings
Fluffy flowers of Tetradenia riparia (misty plume bush)
Flowers of Malus sylvestris (crab apple)
Flowers and leaves of Senecio angulatus (creeping groundsel)
Two bees on the composite flower head of creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense
Angiosperm life cycle
The fruit of Aesculus hippocastanum, the horse chestnut tree
A poster of twelve different species of flowers of the family Asteraceae
Lupinus pilosus
Bud of a pink rose

The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek words angeion ('container, vessel') and sperma ('seed'), and refers to those plants that produce their seeds enclosed within a fruit.

Sunflower seedlings, three days after germination

Germination

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Process by which an organism grows from a seed or spore.

Process by which an organism grows from a seed or spore.

Sunflower seedlings, three days after germination
Sunflower time lapse with soil. cross section, showing how the roots and the upper part of the plant grow
A seed tray used in horticulture for sowing and taking plant cuttings and growing plugs
Germination glass (glass sprouter jar) with a plastic sieve-lid
Brassica campestris germinating seeds
Malted (germinated) barley grains
Germination of seedlings raised from seeds of eucalyptus after three days of sowing
The stages of germination of a pea plant: A. seed coat, B. radicle, C. primary root, D. secondary root, E. cotyledon, F. plumule, G. leaf, H. tap root
3D-visualization of Aspergillus niger spore germination. This image has been captured using holotomography microscopy.

The term is applied to the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, such as the spores of fungi, ferns, bacteria, and the growth of the pollen tube from the pollen grain of a seed plant.

Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed

Drupe

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Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
The development sequence of a typical drupe, a smooth-skinned (nectarine) type of peach (Prunus persica) over a 7 1⁄2-month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer
Assorted drupes
The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit)
'Elena', a freestone prune plum
The pit of a nectarine
Unripe drupes of black pepper
'Black Butte' blackberry, a bramble fruit of aggregated drupelets
A ripe areca nut
Ginkgo "fruits", often noted as drupe-like

In botany, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin, and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the pit, stone, or pyrena) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside.

A selection of dried pulses and fresh legumes

Legume

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A selection of dried pulses and fresh legumes
Pulse in Nanglo
Freshly dug peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), indehiscent legume fruits
White clover, a forage crop
Lupin flower garden
Depending on the variety, Phaseolus vulgaris (a pulse) may be called "common bean", "kidney bean", "haricot bean", "pinto bean", or "navy bean", among other names.
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Nitrogen cycle and its stages

A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant.

Monocotyledon

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Allium crenulatum (Asparagales), an onion, with typical monocot perianth and parallel leaf venation
Onion slice: the cross-sectional view shows the veins that run in parallel along the length of the bulb and stem
Comparison of a monocot (grass: Poales) sprouting (left) with a dicot (right)
Yucca brevifolia (Joshua Tree: Asparagales)
Roystonea regia palm (Arecales) stems showing anomalous secondary growth in monocots, with characteristic fibrous roots
Illustrations of cotyledons by John Ray 1682, after Malpighi

Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

Plant

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Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

Green algae from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904.
A variaty of fungi species
Dicksonia antarctica, a species of tree fern
A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Range of pangaea glossopteris.
The leaf is usually the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
There is no photosynthesis in deciduous leaves in autumn.
Plant cell structure
The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.
Mechanical harvest of oats.
Melocactus plants being used as medicine.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
A rose espalier at Niedernhall in Germany.
Capitals of ancient Egyptian columns decorated to resemble papyrus plants. (at Luxor, Egypt)
Barbara McClintock (1902–1992) was a pioneering cytogeneticist who used maize (corn) to study the mechanism of inheritance of traits.
Musk Thistle are invasive species in texas.

The DNA damage response is particularly important during seed germination, since seed quality tends to deteriorate with age in association with DNA damage accumulation.

Chestnuts are both botanical and culinary nuts.

Nut (fruit)

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Fruit consisting of a hard or tough nutshell protecting a kernel which is usually edible.

Fruit consisting of a hard or tough nutshell protecting a kernel which is usually edible.

Chestnuts are both botanical and culinary nuts.
Some common "culinary nuts": hazelnuts, which are also botanical nuts; Brazil nuts, which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of a capsule; and walnuts, pecans, and almonds (which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of drupes)
Nuts being sold in a market
Raw mixed nuts, sold as a snack food.

In general usage and in a culinary sense, a wide variety of dry seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent).

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Endosperm

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The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following double fertilization.

Longitudinal section of a female flower of a squash plant (courgette), showing the ovary, ovules, pistil and petals

Fruit anatomy

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Plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.

Plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.

Longitudinal section of a female flower of a squash plant (courgette), showing the ovary, ovules, pistil and petals
Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
A schematic picture of an orange hesperidium
A segment of an orange that has been opened to show the pulp (juice vesicles) of the endocarp
Almond endocarp

Simple fruits are formed from a single ovary and may contain one or many seeds.