Seed

seedsseed coatkerneltestakernelspipspipseed coatsexotestatestas
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.wikipedia
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Spermatophyte

seed plantseed plantsSpermatophytes
The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.

Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.
However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds.

Fern

PolypodiopsidafernsPolypodiophyta
Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves.
A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta) is a member of a group of vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

Moss

mossesBryophytaMusci
Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves.
Mosses do not have seeds and after fertilisation develop sporophytes with unbranched stalks topped with single capsules containing spores.

Fruit

fruitsfruitingfresh fruit
Many structures commonly referred to as "seeds" are actually dry fruits.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

Husk

hulledhullhulling
In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, whereas the potato is a tuber.
Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed.

Acorn

acorns acornsacorn flour
Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut.
It usually contains a single seed (occasionally two seeds), enclosed in a tough, leathery shell, and borne in a cup-shaped cupule.

Hazelnut

hazelnutshazel nutfilbert
Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut.
The kernel of the seed is edible and used raw or roasted, or ground into a paste.

Endosperm

albuminousexalbuminouskernel
In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization, which involves the fusion of two male gametes with the egg cell and the central cell to form the primary endosperm and the zygote.
The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.

Seedling

seedlingsplumuleLamha
Over this period, there were six bumper, five poor, and nine good seed crops, when evaluated for production of adequate seedlings for natural forest reproduction.
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.

Nut (fruit)

nutsnutnutlet
Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.

Germination

germinategerminatinggerminates
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination.
The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.

Conifer cone

conespine coneseed cones
However, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales as they develop in some species of conifer.
The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds.

Drupe

stone fruitdrupesdrupaceous
Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed.
In botany, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the pit, stone, or pyrene) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside.

Potato

potatoesSolanum tuberosumIrish potato
The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds".
After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds.

Maize

cornZea mayscorn (maize)
The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds".
The pericarp of the fruit is fused with the seed coat referred to as "caryopsis", typical of the grasses, and the entire kernel is often referred to as the "seed".

Plant development

adventitiousplant growthadventitious root
The plumule is covered with a coleoptile that forms the first leaf while the radicle is covered with a coleorhiza that connects to the primary root and adventitious roots form from the sides.
In seed plants, the embryo will develop one or more "seed leaves" (cotyledons).

Monocotyledon

Monocotsmonocotmonocotyledonous
The embryo has one cotyledon or seed leaf in monocotyledons, two cotyledons in almost all dicotyledons and two or more in gymnosperms.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

Dicotyledon

dicotdicotyledonsdicots
The embryo has one cotyledon or seed leaf in monocotyledons, two cotyledons in almost all dicotyledons and two or more in gymnosperms.
The name refers to one of the typical characteristics of the group, namely that the seed has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons.

Reproduction

reproductiveprocreationreproduce
The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.
Parthenogenesis is the growth and development of embryo or seed without fertilization by a male.

Fruit anatomy

pericarpendocarpepicarp
(The seed coats of some monocotyledon plants, such as the grasses, are not distinct structures, but are fused with the fruit wall to form a pericardia.) The testae of both monocots and dicots are often marked with patterns and textured markings, or have wings or tufts of hair.
In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds.

Fertilisation

fertilizationconceptionfertilized
Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant.
This triploid cell divides through mitosis and forms the endosperm, a nutrient-rich tissue, inside the seed.

Coconut

coconut palmCocos nuciferacoconuts
The endosperm may also be referred to as "fleshy" or "cartilaginous" with thicker soft cells such as coconut, but may also be oily as in Ricinus (castor oil), Croton and Poppy.
The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut.

Hilum (biology)

hilumhilahilar
The funiculars abscesses (detaches at fixed point – abscission zone), the scar forming an oval depression, the hilum.
In botany, a hilum (pronounced ) is a scar or mark left on a seed coat by the former attachment to the ovary wall or to the funiculus (which in turn attaches to the ovary wall).

Nutmeg

macenutmeg and maceNutmeg butter
The endosperm is called "horny" when the cell walls are thicker such as date and coffee, or "ruminated" if mottled, as in nutmeg, palms and Annonaceae.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.