Seismology

seismicseismologistseismologistsseismologicalseismic activityseismicallyEngineering Seismologyseismicityearthquake seismologyHistory of seismology
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.wikipedia
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Seismic source

VibroseisPlasma sound sourceAir cannon (mechanics)
The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions.
A seismic source is a device that generates controlled seismic energy used to perform both reflection and refraction seismic surveys.

Zhang Heng

Chang Hunggrid systemHeng Zhang
340 BCE) and Zhang Heng (132 CE).
Educated in the capital cities of Luoyang and Chang'an, he achieved success as an astronomer, mathematician, seismologist, hydraulic engineer, inventor, geographer, cartographer, ethnographer, artist, poet, philosopher, politician, and literary scholar.

1755 Lisbon earthquake

Lisbon earthquake1755 earthquakeearthquake of 1755
The Lisbon earthquake of 1755, coinciding with the general flowering of science in Europe, set in motion intensified scientific attempts to understand the behaviour and causation of earthquakes.
Seismologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake had a magnitude in the range 8.5–9.0 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicenter in the Atlantic Ocean about 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent.

Paleoseismology

paleoseismicpaleoseismologicalPaleoseismic studies
A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology.
It is used to supplement seismic monitoring, for the calculation of seismic hazard.

Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologic
A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology.
Advances in seismology, computer modeling, and mineralogy and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures give insights into the internal composition and structure of the Earth.

Robert Mallet

Mallet
From 1857, Robert Mallet laid the foundation of instrumental seismology and carried out seismological experiments using explosives.
Robert Mallet, FRS, MRIA (3 June 1810 – 5 November 1881), Irish geophysicist, civil engineer, and inventor who distinguished himself in research on earthquakes and is sometimes called the father of seismology.

Inge Lehmann

I. LehmannInge Lehmann MedalLehmann, Inge
In 1937, Inge Lehmann determined that within the earth's liquid outer core there is a solid inner core.
Inge Lehmann (13 May 1888 – 21 February 1993) was a Danish seismologist and geophysicist.

Harry Fielding Reid

Henry Fielding ReidReidReid, Harry Fielding
In 1910, after studying the April 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Harry Fielding Reid put forward the "elastic rebound theory" which remains the foundation for modern tectonic studies.
He was notable for his contributions to seismology, particularly his theory of elastic rebound that related faults to earthquakes.

S-wave

shear waveS-wavesshear
There are two types of body waves, pressure waves or primary waves (P-waves) and shear or secondary waves (S-waves). S-waves are transverse waves that move perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.

John Michell

Michell, John
The earliest responses include work by John Bevis (1757) and John Michell (1761).
He has been called both the father of seismology and the father of magnetometry.

Longitudinal wave

longitudinalcompressional wavecompression wave
P-waves are longitudinal waves that involve compression and expansion in the direction that the wave is moving and are always the first waves to appear on a seismogram as they are the fastest moving waves through solids.
While these two acronyms have specific meanings in seismology (L-wave for Love wave or long wave ) and electrocardiography (see T wave), some authors chose to use "l-waves" (lowercase 'L') and "t-waves" instead, although they are not commonly found in physics writings except for some popular science books.

1906 San Francisco earthquake

1906 earthquakeSan Francisco earthquakeSan Francisco earthquake of 1906
In 1910, after studying the April 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Harry Fielding Reid put forward the "elastic rebound theory" which remains the foundation for modern tectonic studies.
The earthquake was the first natural disaster of its magnitude to be documented by photography and motion picture footage and occurred at a time when the science of seismology was blossoming.

Earthquake

earthquakesseismic activityseismic
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
It is principally due to the transfer of the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft superficial soils and to effects of seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of the deposits.

Love wave

Love wavesLoveQ waves
The two main surface wave types are Rayleigh waves, which have both compressional and shear motions, and Love waves, which are purely shear.
In seismology, Love waves (also known as Q waves (Quer: German for lateral)) are surface seismic waves that cause horizontal shifting of the Earth during an earthquake.

Transverse wave

transversetransverse wavesshear waves
S-waves are transverse waves that move perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
In seismology, shear waves are also called secondary waves or S-waves.

Exploration geophysics

seismic testingapplied geophysicsgeophysical exploration
Seismic waves produced by explosions or vibrating controlled sources are one of the primary methods of underground exploration in geophysics (in addition to many different electromagnetic methods such as induced polarization and magnetotellurics).

Plate tectonics

tectonic platesplate tectonictectonic
By the 1960s, earth science had developed to the point where a comprehensive theory of the causation of seismic events had come together in the now well-established theory of plate tectonics.
Simultaneous advances in early seismic imaging techniques in and around Wadati–Benioff zones along the trenches bounding many continental margins, together with many other geophysical (e.g. gravimetric) and geological observations, showed how the oceanic crust could disappear into the mantle, providing the mechanism to balance the extension of the ocean basins with shortening along its margins.

Microseism

microseismicmicroseismsmicroseismic activity
Seismometers also record signals from non-earthquake sources ranging from explosions (nuclear and chemical), to local noise from wind or anthropogenic activities, to incessant signals generated at the ocean floor and coasts induced by ocean waves (the global microseism), to cryospheric events associated with large icebergs and glaciers.
In seismology, a microseism is defined as a faint earth tremor caused by natural phenomena.

Ocean-bottom seismometer

Ocean bottom seismographyocean bottom seismometersunderwater
Seismometers may be deployed at the Earth's surface, in shallow vaults, in boreholes, or underwater.
Sensors at the sea floor are used to observe acoustic and seismic events.

Forensic seismology

forensic seismologist
Above-ocean meteor strikes with energies as high as 4.2 × 1013 J (equivalent to that released by an explosion of ten kilotons of TNT) have been recorded by seismographs, as have a number of industrial accidents and terrorist bombs and events (a field of study referred to as forensic seismology).
Forensic seismology is the forensic use of the techniques of seismology to detect and study distant phenomena, particularly explosions, including those of nuclear weapons.

Seismometer

seismographseismographsseismometers
In 132 CE, Zhang Heng of China's Han dynasty designed the first known seismoscope.
The technical discipline concerning such devices is called seismometry, a branch of seismology.

Tsunami

tsunamistidal waveseaquake
The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions.
The term seismic sea wave also is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most often are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.

Earthquake prediction

characteristic earthquakepredict earthquakespredicting earthquakes
Forecasting a probable timing, location, magnitude and other important features of a forthcoming seismic event is called earthquake prediction.
Earthquake prediction is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with the specification of the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes within stated limits, and particularly "the determination of parameters for the next strong earthquake to occur in a region. Earthquake prediction is sometimes distinguished from earthquake forecasting, which can be defined as the probabilistic assessment of general earthquake hazard, including the frequency and magnitude of damaging earthquakes in a given area over years or decades. Prediction can be further distinguished from earthquake warning systems, which upon detection of an earthquake, provide a real-time warning of seconds to neighboring regions that might be affected.

Nuclear weapons testing

nuclear testnuclear testingnuclear tests
A major long-term motivation for the global seismographic monitoring has been for the detection and study of nuclear testing.

Earthquake engineering

anti-seismicEarthquake Engineering Researchseismic
Such forecasts estimate the probability of an earthquake of a particular size affecting a particular location within a particular time-span, and they are routinely used in earthquake engineering.
The loading that is expected at a given location on the Earth's surface is estimated by engineering seismology.