Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreedingselectedbreeding stockselectionbredselectively breedingselectively breedartificially selected
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.wikipedia
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Domestication

domesticateddomesticdomesticate
Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars. Its first chapter discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, cats, cattle, and dogs.
He was also the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, and unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits.

Cultigen

cultigenscultural varietyfood cultivation
Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.
A cultigen (from the Latin cultus – cultivated, and gens – kind) is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection.

Breeder

BreedersAnimal Breederbreed
Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.
A breeder is a person who selectively breeds carefully selected mates, normally of the same breed to sexually reproduce offspring with specific, consistently replicable qualities and characteristics.

Breed

breedsbredstandardized breed
Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.
Breeds are formed through genetic isolation and either natural adaptation to the environment or selective breeding, or a combination of the two.

Cultivar

cultivarsvarietycultivated variety
Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.
Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles
Charles Darwin discussed how selective breeding had been successful in producing change over time in his 1859 book, On the Origin of Species.
In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
Two purebred animals of different breeds produce a crossbreed, and crossbred plants are called hybrids.
Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds (usually called cultivars in reference to plants); crossbreeds between them (without any wild stock) are sometimes also imprecisely referred to as "hybrids".

Dog

dogsCanis lupus familiariscanine
Its first chapter discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, cats, cattle, and dogs. Selective breeding of both plants and animals has been practiced since early prehistory; key species such as wheat, rice, and dogs have been significantly different from their wild ancestors for millennia, and maize, which required especially large changes from teosinte, its wild form, was selectively bred in Mesoamerica.
The dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
Charles Darwin popularised the term "natural selection", contrasting it with artificial selection, which is intentional, whereas natural selection is not.

Inbreeding

inbredlinebreedinglinebred
In animal breeding, techniques such as inbreeding, linebreeding, and outcrossing are utilized.
Inbreeding is a technique used in selective breeding.

Cat

domestic catcatsdomestic cats
Its first chapter discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, cats, cattle, and dogs.
Members of this genus include the jungle cat (F. chaus), European wildcat (F. silvestris), African wildcat (F. lybica), Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), sand cat (F. margarita) and black-footed cat (F. nigripes). Results of phylogenetic research confirm that these wild Felis species evolved through sympatric or parapatric speciation, whereas the domestic cat evolved through artificial selection.

Animal breeding

breedinganimalbreeders
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. In animal breeding, techniques such as inbreeding, linebreeding, and outcrossing are utilized.
Artificial selection

On the Origin of Species

Origin of SpeciesThe Origin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Charles Darwin discussed how selective breeding had been successful in producing change over time in his 1859 book, On the Origin of Species.
Darwin described natural selection as being analogous to the artificial selection practised by animal breeders, and emphasised competition between individuals; Wallace drew no comparison to selective breeding, and focused on ecological pressures that kept different varieties adapted to local conditions.

Polled livestock

polledhornlessdomesticated forms
It was hornless and had a square, meaty body with straight top lines.
The term refers both to breeds or strains that are naturally polled through selective breeding and also to naturally horned animals that have been disbudded.

British Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural RevolutionagriculturalAgrarian revolution
Selective breeding was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century.
Selective breeding

Robert Bakewell (agriculturalist)

Robert Bakewell
Selective breeding was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century.
In addition to work in agronomy, Bakewell is particularly notable as the second to implement systematic selective breeding of livestock.

Animal husbandry

husbandrybreedingcattle breeding
Darwin noted that many domesticated animals and plants had special properties that were developed by intentional animal and plant breeding from individuals that showed desirable characteristics, and discouraging the breeding of individuals with less desirable characteristics.
It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Selective breeding of both plants and animals has been practiced since early prehistory; key species such as wheat, rice, and dogs have been significantly different from their wild ancestors for millennia, and maize, which required especially large changes from teosinte, its wild form, was selectively bred in Mesoamerica.
Some have argued it would have taken too many generations of selective breeding to produce large, compressed ears for efficient cultivation.

Cattle

cowscowsteer
Its first chapter discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, cats, cattle, and dogs.
Breeders use cattle husbandry to reduce M. bovis infection susceptibility by selective breeding and maintaining herd health to avoid concurrent disease.

Purebred

pedigreepure-bredpedigreed
Purebred animals have a single, recognizable breed, and purebreds with recorded lineage are called pedigreed.
Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding.

Zea (plant)

Zeateosintecreated
Selective breeding of both plants and animals has been practiced since early prehistory; key species such as wheat, rice, and dogs have been significantly different from their wild ancestors for millennia, and maize, which required especially large changes from teosinte, its wild form, was selectively bred in Mesoamerica.
Teosintes are critical components of maize evolution, but opinions vary about which taxa were involved.

Behavioural genetics

behavioral geneticsbehavior geneticsbehavior geneticist
Studies in evolutionary physiology, behavioral genetics, and other areas of organismal biology have also made use of deliberate selective breeding, though longer generation times and greater difficulty in breeding can make such projects challenging in vertebrates.
In the latter half of the 20th century, the field saw renewed prominence with research on inheritance of behaviour and mental illness in humans (typically using twin and family studies), as well as research on genetically informative model organisms through selective breeding and crosses.

Mixed breed

mixed
Crossbreeds are a mix of two purebreds, whereas mixed breeds are a mix of several breeds, often unknown.
A mixed breed is a domesticated animal descended from multiple breeds of the same species, often breeding without any human intervention, recordkeeping, or selective breeding.

Breeding back

breed backback-breedback-breeding
Breeding back
Breeding back is a form of artificial selection by the deliberate selective breeding of domestic animals, in an attempt to achieve an animal breed with a phenotype that resembles a wildtype ancestor, usually one that is extinct in its wild form.

Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
Eugenics
The concept predates this coinage, with Plato suggesting applying the principles of selective breeding to humans around 400 BCE.