Selective exposure theory

selective exposureKlapper's selective exposure theorySelective distortionselective exposure.
Selective exposure is a theory within the practice of psychology, often used in media and communication research, that historically refers to individuals' tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information.wikipedia
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Confirmation bias

Backfire effectdisconfirmation biasconfirmation
Selective exposure has also been known and defined as "congeniality bias" or "confirmation bias" in various texts throughout the years.
Individuals vary in their abilities to defend their attitudes from external attacks in relation to selective exposure.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Selective exposure is a theory within the practice of psychology, often used in media and communication research, that historically refers to individuals' tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information.

Communication

communicationsSocial Communicationcommunicate
Selective exposure is a theory within the practice of psychology, often used in media and communication research, that historically refers to individuals' tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information.

Contradiction

contradictorycontradictionscontradicts
Selective exposure is a theory within the practice of psychology, often used in media and communication research, that historically refers to individuals' tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information.

Defence mechanism

defense mechanismdefense mechanismsdefence mechanisms
The foundation of this theory is rooted in the cognitive dissonance theory, which asserts that when individuals are confronted with contrasting ideas, certain mental defense mechanisms are activated to produce harmony between new ideas and pre-existing beliefs, which results in cognitive equilibrium.

Jean Piaget

PiagetPiagetianPiaget, J.
According to Jean Piaget, when a mismatch occurs, people find it to be "inherently dissatisfying".

Prejudice

bigotrybigotbigoted
Selective exposure has been displayed in various contexts such as self-serving situations and situations in which people hold prejudices regarding outgroups, particular opinions, and personal and group-related issues.

In-group and out-group

ingroupin-groupoutgroup
Selective exposure has been displayed in various contexts such as self-serving situations and situations in which people hold prejudices regarding outgroups, particular opinions, and personal and group-related issues.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Bay of PigsinvasionThe Bay of Pigs Invasion
A historical example of the disastrous effects of selective exposure and its effects on group dynamics is the series of events leading up to the Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961.

John F. Kennedy

KennedyPresident KennedyJohn Kennedy
President John F. Kennedy was given the go ahead by his advisers to authorize the invasion of Cuba by poorly trained expatriates despite overwhelming evidence that it was a foolish and ill-conceived tactical maneuver.

Social psychology

social psychologistsocialsocial psychological
Social psychology, specifically, includes research with a variety of situational factors and related psychological processes that eventually persuade a person to make a quality decision.

Lehman Brothers

LehmanLehman Brothers Kuhn LoebLehman Brothers Holdings Inc.
Recent research has shown that "Confirmatory Information Search" was responsible for the 2008 bankruptcy of the Lehman Brothers Investment Bank which then triggered the Global Financial Crisis.

Financial crisis of 2007–08

financial crisis of 2007–2008global financial crisis2008 financial crisis
Recent research has shown that "Confirmatory Information Search" was responsible for the 2008 bankruptcy of the Lehman Brothers Investment Bank which then triggered the Global Financial Crisis.

Dick Cheney

CheneyRichard B. CheneyRichard Cheney
For example, former Vice President Dick Cheney would only enter a hotel room after the television was turned on and tuned to a conservative television channel.

Decision-making

decision makingdecisionsdecision
The position that a person has taken will be colored by various factors of that issue that are reinforced during the decision-making process.

Perception

perceptualsensorysensory perception
Physical attractiveness affects an individual's decision because the perception of quality improves.

Terror management theory

death anxietyexistential threatmeaning maintenance model
Researchers analyzed the data by using the terror management theory and found that age had no direct effect on specific behaviors.

Leon Festinger

Festingerfailed prophecy
Leon Festinger is widely considered as the father of modern social psychology and as an important figure to that field of practice as Freud was to clinical psychology and Piaget was to developmental psychology.

Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
His work demonstrated that it is possible to use the scientific method to investigate complex and significant social phenomena without reducing them to the mechanistic connections between stimulus and response that were the basis of behaviorism.

Cognitive dissonance

cognitive dissonance theorydissonancecognitive consistency
The foundation of this theory is rooted in the cognitive dissonance theory, which asserts that when individuals are confronted with contrasting ideas, certain mental defense mechanisms are activated to produce harmony between new ideas and pre-existing beliefs, which results in cognitive equilibrium.

Propaganda

propagandistpropagandisticpropagandists
Prior to Klapper's research, the prevailing opinion was that mass media had a substantial power to sway individual opinion and that audiences were passive consumers of prevailing media propaganda.

Mass communication

mass communicationsmass-communicationBachelor of Mass Communication
In this case, the person's predisposition to the political party is already set, so they don't perceive information about Democratic Party or change voting behavior because of mass communication.

Mass media

mediapressmedia company
Recent studies have shown relevant empirical evidence for the pervasive influence of selective exposure on the greater population at large due to mass media.